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Greek Esther


What is the Greek book of Esther?

If we take the trouble to speak of a "Greek Esther", it is because there is also a "Hebrew Esther". However, if most of the books of the Old Testament were written in Hebrew and then translated into Greek in what constitutes the Septuagint, one hardly ever distinguishes the two versions: for example, one never speaks of a "Hebrew Exodus" and a "Greek Exodus". Why is this done with the book of Esther? Because there is such a big difference between the Hebrew and the Greek version that it is worthwhile to detail it. Let us mention right away that the Greek text we are talking about here is the common version (OG: Old Greek) known to Origen, and not the shorter one, called the Alpha-text according to the edition of Göttigen (1966).

  1. First, six sections or stories are added (identified by the letters A to F in the text below), so that of the 270 verses in the Greek text, 107 have no parallel in the Hebrew or Masoretic text, i.e. 40%.

  2. Greek translations of the Septuagint sometimes opt for a tight translation, sometimes for a rather free one; the translation of the Greek Esther is no exception, but the freedom it gives itself is greater, so that it can omit words or whole phrases, for example when they appear shocking (a massacre), or on the contrary add words or phrases to clarify things, not to mention the cases where it expands certain scenes.

  3. Last but not least, the Greek translation has made the story of Esther a truly religious one: the Hebrew version never mentions God or the Lord, whereas in the Greek version the word "God" is used 24 times, and "Lord" 23 times; for the Greek Esther, it is God who has intervened to save his people. And in a parallel way, in the Hebrew version, no one prays, whereas the Greek version presents us with Esther's long prayer as well as that of Mordecai. Without the Greek version, it would be hard to understand what Esther's story is doing in the Bible.

Composition

Let's start by looking at the sequence of the story (the addition of large sections compared to the Hebrew text is underlined)

  1. Future events around the Jew Mordecai (A: 1-17)
    1. Mordecai has a dream about what awaits his people (1-11)
    2. Mordecai denounces the plot of two eunuchs, causing the enmity of Haman (12-17)
    3. Decline of Queen Vashti (1: 1-22)
    1. The king organizes a great banquet on his arrival in Susa (1: 1-8)
    2. Confrontation with the Queen (1: 9-22)
      1. On the 7th day, the king wants to present the beauty of the queen naked (1: 9-11)
      2. The queen refuses (1: 12)
      3. Discussion of the king with his advisors on the action to be taken: an edict of deposition and search for a new queen (1: 13-22)
  2. The arrival of Esther as the new queen (2: 1-23)
    1. Search for the most beautiful virgin girls for the king's harem (2: 1-4)
    2. Esther, under the tutelage of Mordecai, is chosen for the harem (2: 5-8)
    3. One year preparation with oil and creams for all girls (2: 9-12)
    4. When Esther is presented to the king, he becomes in love with her and makes her queen (2: 13-23)
  3. Action of Haman (3: 1-13; B: 1-7; 3: 14-15)
    1. Having become grand-vizier, all bow down to Haman, except Mordecai (3: 1-4)
    2. Furious, Haman decided to exterminate the Jews and cast lots for the 14th day of the month of Adar (3: 5-7)
    3. Haman convinces the king of his business and have a decree written (3: 8-13)
    4. Copy of the decree (B: 1-7)
    5. Promulgation of the decree (3: 14-15)
  4. Reaction of Mordecai and Esther
    1. Mordecai takes the clothes and the attitude of mourning (4: 1-3)
    2. Dialogue between Esther and Mordecai (4: 4-17)
      1. Learning of Mordecai's attitude, Esther asks him to stop (4: 4)
      2. At Esther's request, Mordecai informs her of the situation and asks her to plead the Jews' cause with the king (4: 5-9)
      3. Esther makes it known that one cannot see the king without being invited (4: 10-11)
      4. Mordecai warns her that she herself will not escape death (4: 12-14)
      5. Esther then asks Mordecai to fast for three days while she does the same (4: 15-17)
    3. Prayer of Mordecai (C: 1-11)
      1. Mordecai addresses the master of the universe who knows everything (C: 1-5)
      2. He explains that it is to honor God alone that he did not bow down to Haman (C: 6-7)
      3. Now he asks God to spare his people (C: 8-11)
    4. Esther's prayer (C: 12-30)
      1. Esther takes on mourning clothes (C: 12-13)
      2. She asked God to help her (C: 14-15)
      3. After recalling that He has chosen a people, she recognizes that these people have sinned (C: 16-18)
      4. Now she asks Him to intervene for this people in distress (C: 29-23)
      5. Above all, she asks him to put the right words in his mouth in front of the king, she who despised the royal glory and who was always attached to the Jewish customs (C: 24-30)
  5. Esther's intervention with the king and Haman's death (D: 1-16; 5: 3-14; 6: 1-14; 7: 1-10)
    1. Esther's dramatic encounter with the king (D: 1-16)
      1. Entering the king's house, Esther is struck by his look (D: 1-7)
      2. In front of Esther fainting, the king changes of mood and tries to comfort her (D: 8-16)
    2. Esther's request (5: 3-8)
      1. The king asks Esther to express her request (5: 3)
      2. Esther asks the king to organize a banquet with Haman (5: 4)
    3. First banquet and its aftermath (5: 5-14)
      1. During the banquet, Esther asks to have a second banquet the following day (5: 5-8)
      2. After the banquet, Haman sees Mordecai and becomes furious (5: 9)
      3. His people advise him to create a gallows and to ask the king to take Mordecai there (5: 10-14)
    4. Interlude: the king's sleepless night and its consequences (6: 1-14)
      1. Insomniac, the king reads the royal chronicle that tells how Mordecai saved his life (6: 1-2)
      2. He also learns that Mordecai was never really rewarded (6: 3)
      3. In the meantime, Haman appears at the king's house and is asked how the king should honor someone (6: 4-6)
      4. Thinking that it is him, Haman describes what to do (6: 7-9)
      5. The king reveals that it is Mordecai and asks him to execute (6: 10)
      6. Haman complies, and on his return home, he is told that all this is a bad omen (6: 11-14)
    5. Second banquet and its aftermath (7: 1-10)
      1. At the banquet, the king asks Esther what she wants (7: 1-2)
      2. Esther speaks of a slanderer who enslaved her people (7: 3-4)
      3. Learning that it is Haman the king is upset and withdraws (7: 5-6)
      4. When he returns, he sees Haman collapsed on Esther to implore her, and interprets the scene as an attempted rape (7: 7-8)
      5. Haman is hanged on the gallows he had built (7: 9-10)
  6. Outcome (8: 1-12; E: 1-24; 8: 13-17; 9: 1-32; 10: 1-3)
    1. The king gives Esther and Haman all the possessions of Haman (8: 1-2)
    2. Esther asks the king to cancel Haman's decree against the Jews (8: 3-6)
    3. At the king's suggestion, Esther receives the king's ring to proclaim a new decree asking people to help the Jews eliminate their enemies (8: 7-12)
    4. Copy of the decree (E: 1-24)
    5. Publication of the decree and jubilation among the Jews (8: 13-17)
    6. Execution of the decree and massacre of the enemies of the Jews (9: 1-18)
    7. Institution of the Feast of the Fates to celebrate this happy ending (9: 19-32)
    8. Mordecai succeeds the king (10: 1-3)
  7. Conclusion (F: 1-11)
    1. Interpretation of the initial dream of Mordecai and reminder of the meaning of the Feast of Lots (F: 1-10)
    2. Postscript on a contributor and the translator (F: 11)

According to a study of the language of this story, it is a translation of a Hebrew original. In particular, there are some Hebrew turns of phrase that have been translated literally:

  • A: 1 (see also 1: 2; 2: 5; 9: 6.12.18): en Sousois tē polei (in Susa the city), a Hebraism to say: the city of Susa
  • 1: 1: Kai egeneto meta tous logous toutous en tais hēmerais Artaxerxou (and it happened after these things in the days of Artaxerxes), a Hebraism to say: it was in the days of Artaxerxes
  • 3: 7: hēmeran ex hēmeras kai mēna ek mēnos (he cast lots "the day among the days and the month among the months"), a Hebraism to say: he cast lots for the day and the month
  • 6: 13: pesōn pesē (by going to fall, you will fall), a Hebraism to say: you will continue to fall
  • 8: 3: prostheisa elalēsen (adding she said), a Hebraism to say: again she spoke

As mentioned, the translator would have expanded the Hebrew original by adding six new sections which we have identified by the letters of the alphabet:
  • A (Foreshadowing events, i.e. Mordecai's dream and his denunciation of a plot),
  • B (the copy of the decree against the Jews ordered by Haman),
  • C (the prayer of Mordecai and Esther),
  • D (Esther's dramatic encounter with the king),
  • E (the copy of Esther's decree for the Jews),
  • F (the interpretation of Mordecai's dream and the meaning of the festival of the "Lots").

There is a consensus among biblical scholars that additions A, C, D and F were originally in Hebrew, while additions B and E (the two decrees) were originally in Greek. It is easy to imagine that A (the dream of Mordecai) and F (the interpretation of the dream) come from the same author. In section C (the prayer of Mordecai and Esther) one finds the same tendency that explains the creation of the prayer of Manasseh (perhaps at the end of the second century BC), where certain stories are "Judaized" and given a religious fervor.

But the connection in adding new sources is sometimes awkward and inconsistent. For example, the story begins with chapter A where Mordecai is already an important character and where we are told how he foiled a plot against the king. However, later on, in chapter 2, Mordecai is a mere citizen of Shushan and it is only in chapter 2, after Esther's marriage to the king, that he begins to serve at court, and it is only in chapter 8, after Haman's death and after the king learns of his blood relationship with Esther, that he is elevated to an important rank. Moreover, we are told in chapter 2, as if for the first time and forgetting addition A, that two eunuchs are plotting to assassinate the king, and this time Mordecai informs Esther, and it is Esther who informs the king. Thus the translator has patched together two different sources without bothering to really integrate them into a coherent narrative.

In the same line, we read in chapter C 28: "And your servant (Esther) has not eaten at Haman's table, and I have not honored the king's feast or drunk the wine of libations"; thus, Esther assures us that she has always stayed away from the royal table. Later on, Esther takes the initiative to sit at the table with the king: "But Esther said, 'Today is a great day for me. If it pleases the king, let him and Haman come to the banquet that I will hold today" (5:4). As can be seen, the translator has simply patched together the two sources without bothering to integrate them into a coherent whole.

It must be noted, therefore, that in expanding the original Hebrew narrative in this way, the Greek translator is in a sense doing something original. He has taken the Hebrew text from other sources, and even if he has meticulously respected his original source in 62% of the cases, he still gives himself a certain freedom on several occasions:

  • He hellenizes certain expressions. For example: "house of Haman" (Hebrew) becomes "property (hyparchonta) of Haman" (8:1); "for his ministers and servants" (Hebrew) becomes "Friends and other persons of various nations" (1:3), the word "friends" being used in Egypt to designate those close to King Ptolemy; names are Hellenized, e.g. Yair (Heb.) becomes Iairos, Shimei becomes Semeias, Qish becomes Kisaias (2:5)

  • It universalizes perspectives. Thus, "for all the people present in the citadel of Susa, both great and small, a banquet" (Hebrew), becomes "for the people of various nations who lived in the city" (1:5)

  • He amplifies certain descriptions. For example, "There were white cotton curtains and blue hangings tied with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and marble pillars. There were couches of gold and silver on a mosaic pavement of porphyry, marble, motherof- pearl, and colored stones. Drinks were served in golden goblets, goblets of different kinds, and the royal wine was lavished according to the bounty of the king" (Hebrew) becomes "which was adorned with curtains of fine linen and cotton, held by cords of purple linen attached to gold and silver blocks on pillars of marble and other stones. Gold and silver couches were placed on a mosaic floor of emerald, mother-of-pearl, and marble. There were coverings of gauze, embroidered in various colors, with roses arranged around them. The cups were of gold and silver, and a miniature cup was displayed, made of ruby, worth thirty thousand talents. There was abundant sweet wine, such as the king himself drank" (1: 6-7).

  • He does not hesitate to amplify or exaggerate certain situations, giving it a somewhat theatrical character. For example, to describe the impact of the queen's refusal to the king, the Hebrew writes: "(the ministers' wives) will begin to look with contempt on their husbands", but in the Greek text we have: "(the ministers' wives) will dare to insult their husbands" (1: 18)

  • On the other hand, he is allergic to a certain amount of violence and tries to tone down the overly cruel scenes in the Hebrew original. For example, in the decree of Esther, the text "the king allowed the Jews who were in every city to assemble and defend their lives, to destroy, to kill, and to annihilate any armed force of any people or province that might attack them, with their children and women, and to plunder their goods" (Hebrew) becomes under his pen: "He ordered the Jews in every city to observe their own laws, to defend themselves, and to act as they wished against their opponents and enemies" (8:11); he seeks to mitigate the scale of the massacres, so that "obtaining rest from their enemies and killing 75,000 of those who hated them" (Hebrew) becomes under his pen: "indeed they had annihilated 15,000" (9:6); it is quite revealing that he completely eliminates this verse from the Hebrew text, judged no doubt to be too brutal: "Then the Jews struck all their enemies with their swords, killing and annihilating. To those who hated them they did as they pleased. (9: 5)

  • He changes the time in which the scene takes place. According to the Hebrew text, the story takes place under the Persian king Ahasuerus (reign -486 to -484), whose wife was Vashti. On the other hand, in the Greek text the king is Artarxerxes the Great (reign from 465 BC to 424 BC) and his wife is Vashti. Why this change of period? In the absence of data, we are left with conjectures: perhaps Artarxerxes left a more favorable impression in Jewish memory, especially in Alexandria, because of his attitude towards the Jews (for example, in 1 Esdras 7:5, it is he who authorizes the completion of the temple). Moreover, while Haman is an Amalekite (Agagite) according to the Hebrew text, he is a Macedonian according to the Greek text (9:24); for the Greek author, this is probably a way of associating Alexander the Great, the Macedonian, and his empire (334-63 BC) with the "evil" Haman.

  • Finally, he transforms his Hebrew source from a "nationalistic" narrative into a "religious" narrative.
    • According to the Hebrew account, it is Esther the Jewess who, by her charm, first succeeds in getting the king's ear and then creates a situation in which Haman is eliminated and his people are saved; God is never mentioned, and the account is rather a glorification of the Jewish people in adversity. According to the Greek account, everything happens according to divine providence: Mordecai's dream at the very beginning announces "what God had decided to do" (A 9.11). And throughout the story, God intervenes: he changes the king's heart when she appears before him without being called and he strikes her with his gaze (D 8), just as he keeps the king from sleeping and leads him to consult the royal chronicle (6: 1).

    • Even Haman's friends and wife recognize God's power: "You will not be able to defend yourself, because the living God is with him" (6: 13).

    • In the decree sent by Esther, God is praised: "(the Jews) are children of the living God, most high, most mighty, who has directed the kingdom both for us and for our ancestors in the most excellent order" (E 16). For the main actors, Esther and Mordecai, it is by turning to God through prayer that they will be able to succeed in their feats (C 1-30). And the conclusion is clear: "God has done great signs and wonders, wonders that have never happened among the nations" (F: 6).

    • For her part, Esther presents herself as an authentic Jew who avoids contact with pagans: "you know that I hate the splendor of the wicked and abhor the bed of the uncircumcised and of any alien" (C:26). And when the decree proposed by Esther is published, the Greek text tells us: "And many of the Gentiles were circumcised and became Jews out of fear of the Jews" (8:17).

Who is this translator/author and what was his purpose and goal? Clearly, he belongs to the Hellenistic period, since his language is Greek. At the end of his work, he gives us this indication: "In the fourth year of the reign of Ptolemy and Cleopatra". It is probably Ptolemy VIII, around 114 BC and Cleopatra III. All this brings us to Egypt, probably to Alexandria, the home of the Jewish diaspora. And through the mention of the translator Lysimachus, does the author identify himself? It is possible.

But what is the author's intention in undertaking this work? First of all, we must recognize that we are not in front of a historical work. Of course, many details are plausible: the city of Susa is correctly described, the Persian customs are well observed, and the style of the royal letters seems to respect the conventions of the time. But there are too many implausibilities. First of all, the existence of a queen vashti or Esther, as well as of a man named Mordecai who became a royal official and even successor to the king, all this has left no trace in history. It is likewise quite improbable that Mordecai was "brought from Jerusalem with King Jeconiah of Judea" (A 3): this deportation took place in 587 BC, which would give Mordecai about 150 years. Finally, there is no historical record that a Persian king allowed 15,000 (75,000 according to the Hebrew text) of his own subjects to be slaughtered by the Jews, not to mention its implausibility.

If it is not a historical narrative, what is it? It would be a historical novel, i.e. a fictional story in a historical setting. We find in it the novelistic style of the Greek short stories, with its emotional and psychological dimension. Let us think of the dramatic scene where the queen goes to the king (D 1-16) who glares at her and where the queen faints twice: there is a form of suspense. In the same way, the insertion of dreams in a narrative was part of the literary procedures of the Greek novel of the time.

So why would one write this historical novel? The whole story revolves around one date: the 13th of Adar (if the month of Adar began on February 21, we would be around March 8). It is on this date, determined by Haman by casting lots, that the Jews of the kingdom were to be exterminated. It is on this date, as well as on the following day, that the Jews were able to take their revenge, and thus celebrate the turning of events in their favor. And the conclusion of the account goes in the same direction: "On this account then the Jews who are scattered around the country outside Susa keep the fourteenth of Adar as a joyful holiday" (9:19); this would be an etyological account to explain the meaning of a feast already in force, as is specified a little further on: "Therefore these days were called "Purim," because of the lots (for in their language this is the word that means 'lots')" (9:26). And Mordecai is made the one who instituted this feast and promulgated it for all the Jews: "Mordecai recorded these things in a book, and sent it to the Jews in the kingdom of Artaxerxes both near and far, telling them that they should keep the fourteenth and fifteenth days of Adar" (9: 20-21).

If we place ourselves in the context of the Jewish diaspora of Alexandria where the temptation was great to forget their traditions and to melt into the Hellenistic culture, we understand the effort of the author of the Greek book of Esther to rekindle the religious flame. And the Jewess Esther, by stating loudly that she never stopped eating kosher and that she did not let herself be influenced by non-Jews (C 26-28), becomes a model to follow. Here we find the same atmosphere as the third book of Maccabees and the letter of Astarte composed in the same milieu around 100 BC: in these two books we discern the work of a conservative Jew who tries to restore Jewish customs in all their strength in an environment where Judaism is confronted with Hellenistic culture.

One of these Jewish customs is the festival of Purim or "Lots". The whole story gives the meaning of this feast and invites the Jewish community to enter fully into it by presenting it as a celebration of a happy ending for the Jews, when they were about to be massacred. But all of this seems to be the recovery of a pagan festival that existed in Babylonia. Some biblical scholars think that it was a New Year's festival (March) where Marduk, victorious over chaos, has the lots in his hands. But this feast could simply have come from the Persian carnival at the beginning of the year in March. Moreover, among Jews today, the celebration of Purim has a carnival feel. There is something universal about this type of celebration.

Greek Esther in history

The Greek Book of Esther is known to the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (37 - 100). We have evidence of this in his book Jewish Antiquities (book XI, 184-296), in the year 93, which paraphrases the story of Esther and makes clear reference to the Greek version:

  • The king is named Arthaxerxes, not Xerxes (or Ahasuerus) as in the Hebrew version
  • The king holds a banquet for his friends and other nations, not for his ministers and servants as in the Hebrew version
  • The advisor who proposes a disqualification of the queen is called "Muchaios", and not Memucan as in the Hebrew version
  • The marriage of the king and Esther is celebrated in the seventh year of his reign in the twelfth month, called Adar, and not in the tenth month, called Teveth as in the Hebrew version
  • Josephus paraphrases the contents of the copy of the king's decree against the Jews, a copy which does not exist in the Hebrew version
  • The eunuch who ensures the communication between Esther and Mordecai is called "Achratheus", and not "Hathach" as in the Hebrew version
  • Josephus paraphrases the prayer of Mordecai and Esther which does not exist in the Hebrew version
  • It takes up the melodrama of Esther's arrival to the king where the queen has to lean on one of her maids while the other followed carrying her train, and where she faints, struck by the king's gaze, a melodrama that does not exist in the Hebrew version
  • He paraphrases the content of the copy of the decree proposed by Esther to prevent the massacre of the Jews and to allow them to triumph over their enemies, a copy which does not exist in the Hebrew version
  • Finally, as in the Greek version, Josephus mentions the role of God and his providence

It is worth noting that Josephus also knows the Hebrew version, since he refers to it in his paraphrase of the story of Esther:

  • The wedding period with the queen Astee lasts seven days, and not six days as in the Greek version
  • The ministers who surround the king to advise him on the queen's misconduct are seven in number, not three as in the Greek version
  • Haman is an Amalekite, not a Macedonian as in the Greek version

Reading Josephus, one has the impression that he also refers to a popular narrative that expands certain scenes and adds details:

  • When Astee fell in disgrace, Josephus tells us how much the king had a very great love for her, and could hardly bear the separation, spending his time lamenting the impotence of his desires, a scene unknown to the Greek and Hebrew versions
  • We learn that the harem of the king included 400 girls, a detail unknown elsewhere
  • The king's wedding with Esther lasted a month, a detail unknown elsewhere
  • The men who protected the entrance to the king's hall, to punish those who approached it without being called, were armed with axes, a detail unknown elsewhere
  • It would be Barnabazos who would have foiled the plot of the two eunuchs, and would have warned Mordecai who, in turn, would have informed the king through Esther, a detail unknown elsewhere
  • Haman's wife was called "Gazasa", while the Greek text speaks of "Zosara", and the Hebrew text of "Zeresh"
  • The two unique ones who plotted against the king were called: Gabataios and Theodestes, while the Greek text speaks of: Gabatha and Tharra, and the Hebrew text of: Bigthan and Teresh
  • The eunuch who mentions to the king the gallows prepared for Mordecai by Haman is called "Sabuchadas", whereas he is called "Bugathan" in the Greek version, and "Harbona" in the Hebrew version
  • A small story is built around the honor that Mordecai must receive as Haman asks him to put on the clothes of honor, a story unknown elsewhere

Thus, Josephus seems to know several versions of the story of Esther, an indication of its great popularity in Jewish circles.

Among the Christians of the first centuries, the Greek book of Esther seems to be considered as canonical when one notes how Clement of Rome (35; 99; pope from 88 to 99), Athanasius of Alexandria (296-373), or Ambrose of Milan (340; 397) refer to it. All this was made official in the West at the Roman synod of 382, and in the East at the Council of Constantinople in 692. The Coptic and Ethiopian translations of Esther were made from the Greek version. But when St. Jerome (347-420), in his Latin translation of the Bible, noticed the difference between the Hebrew and Greek versions, he doubted the authenticity of the additions to the Greek version and relegated them to the section of the apocrypha with the title: Additions to Esther. The Greek book of Esther is present in the three great manuscripts: Vaticanus (4th century), Sinaiticus (4th century), Alexandrinus (5th century)

During the renaissance, discussions about the value of the Greek book of Esther intensified. Martin Luther (1483-1546) found little value in either version of the book of Esther, and eventually the Greek version was relegated to the deuterocanonical writings. On the other hand, the Council of Trent (1545-1563) reconfirmed the canonicity of both the Hebrew and Greek versions. For its part, the Orthodox Church uses only the Greek version of the book of Esther.

Today, Bible translations have opted for different approaches. The King James Bible (1611), American Standard version (1901), New English version (1961), New International Version (1968) offer only the Hebrew version after Ezra et Nehemiah, and before Job. The New American Bible (1970) and as well the Jerusalem Bible (1966) have the Esther book after Tobit and Judith, and before the two books of the Maccabees, and they present the Hebrew translation but with the six additions of the Greek version inserted in the Hebrew version. The New Revised Standard Version (1989) presents the Hebrew version after the books of Ezra and Nehemiah, and the Greek version, entitled: Additions to Esther, in the section of the apocryphal and deuterocanonical books, after the books of Tobit and Judith.

-André Gilbert, March 2019

References:


Overview

Chapter A (1-17)According to the author, the scene takes place in Susa (an important city of Elam, now Shush in Iran; see map and Susa in the region of Elam), around March 21, 462 BC, in the time of the Persian king Artaxerxes I (-464 to -424). Mordecai was a Jew, an official in the king's court. He would have been among the Jews deported from Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in the year 587 BC. One night, Mordecai had a dream in which two dragons confronted each other, and behind them, two nations; one of these nations was righteous and, on the verge of annihilation, cried out to God, and from this cry, a small spring came out, then a large river, and at the same time, a light rose in addition to the sun, while the humble were raised up and devoured the noble. When he wakes up, Mordecai keeps his dream secret and tries to understand it.

One day, Mordecai hears the king's two eunuchs plotting against him. He denounces these two men who are immediately arrested, and receives gifts from the king. On the other hand, Haman, one of the king's nobles, has a grudge against him and seeks to harm the entire Jewish people.

Chapter 1 (1-22)The Persian king Artaxerxes, in the third year of his reign (in the year 461 BC), organized a great banquet for 190 days in the royal city of Susa for the nobles of Persia and Media among his friends and the multitude of foreigners, in order to display the splendor of his wealth. This wedding period was extended by a six-day feast in the courtyard of the royal palace, which had been decorated for the occasion with the finest fabrics, the richest furniture. The wine flowed freely. On her side, Queen Astee (or Vashti) had organized an equivalent feast for the women. But on the seventh day, under the effect of the wine, the king asks his seven eunuchs to go and fetch the queen to expose her naked beauty before everyone. The queen refused. Furious, the king asked the advice of his three main ministers. One of them pointed out that, not only the queen had not carried out a decision of the king transmitted by eunuchs, but her decision could be a bad influence on the other ladies of the Persian and Medes ministers, and these will perhaps dare to inflict a similar dishonour on their husbands. Also, Astee should lose her title of queen and be replaced by a better woman than her. All this should be promulgated in the form of a decree in the whole kingdom, so that all women surround their husbands with respect, from the poorest to the richest. The recommendation pleased the king, who complied.
Chapter 2 (1-23)Once the relations with Astee were broken, they looked for the most beautiful virgin women in the kingdom to be part of the king's harem. Among them, the one who will please the king, will become queen. Now, in Susa, there was a Jew named Mordecai, who had been deported from Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. He was the guardian of an orphan girl named Esther, the daughter of his uncle Aminadab. Because she was beautiful, she was part of the contingent brought to the eunuch Gai. And he liked her and gave her preferential treatment in the harem. But nobody knew that she was a Jewess. According to the custom in the preparations for meeting the king, the harem girls would first rub themselves with myrrh oil for six months, then with balms and beauty creams for the next six months, before meeting the king for a first night; usually, this first meeting had no follow-up. When Esther came for her first night with the king around March 21, 457 BC, she immediately pleased the king who put the royal diadem on her head. Then, for seven days, the wedding was celebrated, while Mordecai became a royal official. Meanwhile, two royal eunuchs took offense at Mordecai's promotion and planned to murder the king. Having learned of the plot, Mordecai informed Esther who passed the news on to the king. The two eunuchs were hanged, while Mordecai's good works were recorded in the royal registers.
Chapter 3 (1-13)Later, a man named Haman the Bougean rose to the top of the court and became an important minister. According to the king's instructions, people were to bow down to him. But Mordecai refused. When Haman learned of his situation and that he was a Jew, he became furious and resolved to wipe out the Jewish race. In the year 452 BC, he cast lots for the date of the annihilation of all the Jews, and the lot fell on the month of March of the following year. Haman informed the king that the Jewish nation had laws that were incompatible with the royal laws, and that they should be annihilated; in return, he promised the king an some of ten thousand talents of silver (i.e., 60,000,000 days' wages, or $6,000,000,000; see currency in the Bible). The king agrees to the plan, but asks him to keep his money. Thus, in early April, officials communicated to the generals and ministers of the 127 provinces, from India to Ethiopia, the king's decree to wipe out the Jewish nation and plunder their property by next March.
Chapter B (1-7)Copy of the king's decree. The ministers and prefects of the 127 provinces of the kingdom are informed that the king is constantly seeking to make his kingdom civilized and workable, and to restore peace. And for this purpose, after consulting Haman, his most important minister, he must settle the situation of a malicious people opposed by their laws to all royal ordinances and who set themselves apart by following foreign laws, committing the worst misdeeds. Following the advice of the grand-vizier and so that the kingdom regains its stability, he orders that all those who will be reported by Haman be radically annihilated, including women and children, without any mercy or sparing, for the month of March.
Chapter 3 (14-15)The king's decree was promulgated throughout the kingdom, even in Susa, while Haman and the king were drunk.
Chapter 4 (1-17)When Mordecai learned of the situation, he put on his mourning clothes and cried out in the city, "An innocent nation is being destroyed," but he did not enter the royal gate, being unclean by his mourning. As the whole kingdom mourned for the Jews, her maids of honor and eunuchs informed Esther of what was happening. She was so upset that she sent clothes to Mordecai to take off his mourning clothes. When he refused, she asked one of the eunuchs to communicate with Mordecai to understand the situation. This is how she learns of the king's decree to annihilate the Jews and receives Mordecai's request to intercede with the king for the Jews. In her reply Esther mentions that the king has not called her to him for thirty days and that it is foolhardy to go to him without being called. Mordecai's reply is not long in coming: as a Jewess, she should not imagine that she can escape the common fate, and above all, if she has arrived at royalty, is it not to live the mission that awaits her? So Esther asks Mordecai for one thing: that all the Jews of Susa start fasting, as she will do with her bridesmaids, and then she will be ready to go to the king at the risk of her life.
Chapter C (1-30)Mordecai prayed to God thus: He who created heaven and earth is the Lord of all, and to whom nothing can resist, He also knows everything, and therefore knows that, if He did not bow down to Haman, it was simply so as not to put the glory of man above the glory of God; now is the time to prevent His people from being destroyed, this people whom He saved from Egypt, so that this same people can continue to sing hymns to Him.

For her part, Esther also put on mourning clothes and prayed to God as follows: to Him who is the Only One, she asks to come to her aid, she who is alone; before Him who chose Israel from all the nations to make them His people, she recognizes that they have sinned by turning to pagan cults, but asks Him to intervene against the terrible plan to wipe out His people in favor of a nation that glorifies idols and a mortal king, and consequently begs Him to inflict exemplary punishment on the leader of this plan, while giving herself the courage and the right words to confront the king; He knows that His servant hates everything that is contrary to the Jewish Law, the bed and the banquets of the pagans, as well as the diadem she wears, so that she is unhappy since she is a queen; so that He snatches her from the hands of the pagans and from her fear.

Chapter D (1-16)Three days later, after her fast, Esther put on her ceremonial clothes and, after invoking God, went to the king, leaning on one of the two bridesmaids, while the other followed, carrying her train. When the king, seated on his throne and dressed in his best clothes, saw Esther enter, he glared at her. Esther collapsed in the arms of her maid of honor. Immediately, by the intervention of God, the king becomes all worried and takes Esther in his arms to comfort her and tells her to have confidence, because his ordinance concerns only the common people; he thus asks her to speak. As she expresses her feelings about the greatness and glory of the king, she collapses again.
Chapter 5 (3-14)Upset, the king asks Esther to express her desire, promising her up to half of his kingdom. Then Esther asks that Haman be present at the banquet she will organize the same day with the king. At the end of the banquet, the king reiterates his offer to give her everything she asks for. Esther simply tells him to return with Haman to the banquet the next day. Leaving the king's table, Haman sees Mordecai in the courtyard and becomes furious. Calling his friends and wife, he explains that even if he is filled with wealth and honors, he cannot be happy, because attending the king's table forces him to see Mordecai in the courtyard. He is offered to cut down a 25-meter tree to build a gallows, and to ask the king the next day to take Mordecai there.
Chapter 6 (1-14)That night, God did not allow the king to sleep. So the king began to read the royal annals and came across the passage where Mordecai had saved the king from the death planned by two eunuchs. Asking about the favor Mordecai had received for his action, he learned that he had not been awarded anything. Meanwhile, Haman arrived in the royal court with the intention of asking for Mordecai's head. The king asked him to come and asked him what he should do for someone he wished to honor. Thinking that it was himself, Haman proposed to dress him in a linen garment worn by kings and to have him ride on a royal horse to go through the city, while they would shout: "Thus shall it be done to everyone whom the king honors". Then the king reveals to him that it is Mordecai, the Jew, whom he wishes to honor. Haman must therefore carry out what has been proposed. Back at home and dejected, he tells everything to his wife and friends. They warn him that this is the beginning of his downfall, for the living God is with Mordecai.
Chapter 7 (1-10)Then it was time for the second banquet organized by the queen. Again, the king asks Esther to express her desire, promising her up to half of his kingdom. Then Esther reminds that her people were subjected to slavery and plunder because of a slanderer who is unworthy to be in the royal court. When the king asks who it is, she answers: Haman. The king leaves the table hurriedly for the garden, while Haman, upset, collapsed on the couch, implores the queen with supplications. Returning from the garden and seeing Haman with Esther, he accuses the man of wanting to rape his wife, and learning from a eunuch the existence of the gallows prepared by Haman, he makes him hang there.
Chapter 8 (1-12)On the same day, the king handed over to Esther all of Haman's possessions, and learning of the relationship between Esther and Mordecai, he gave the latter the ring that he had taken from Haman. Then Esther asked the king to put away from her people all the evil that Haman wanted and to revoke the letters that were sent throughout the kingdom. But the king told her that it was impossible for him to dispute what he had already written, but instead offered her to write on his behalf and seal her letters with the royal ring. Thus, in mid-April, the secretaries set about the task of writing letters for the entire kingdom, instructing the Jews to follow their own laws, both to help themselves and to treat their opponents and foes as they pleased for one day only, that being the 13th day of the month of Ader (first week of March).
Chapter E (1-24)Copy of the letter. The king first addresses the ministers of the 127 provinces. He evokes the situation of people who, intoxicated by the generosity of their benefactors, have nourished excessive ambitions to the point of turning against their benefactors. And very often, these people, badly advised, were guilty of innocent blood and exercised power in an unworthy manner. This is the case of Haman, a Macedonian, who had become grand vizier, and in his pride wanted to destroy Mordecai, once the king's savior, as well as Esther and the entire Jewish nation. This is to ignore the fact that the Jews are not criminals, but are governed by very just laws, and are sons of the living God, the Most High. Also, one should not take into account the letters sent previously by Haman, who is now hanging on the gallows. Finally, when this letter is published, the Jews must be helped to repel those who will attack them on the 13th of the month of Adar (early March). That day will be celebrated as a great feast to remember the salvation of the king and all the supporters of the Persians. Those who do not obey this letter will be severely punished.
Chapter 8 (13-17)It is requested that the copies of this letter are posted well in all the kingdom, so that on the 13 of the month of Adar the Jews receive the desired help. As for Mordecai, he put on royal clothes and the whole population of Susa was jubilant, as well as all the Jews of the kingdom. The impact was so great that some pagans, for fear of reprisals, converted to Judaism by being circumcised.
Chapter 9 (1-32)When the 13th of the month of Adar came, the Jews did as the royal letter permitted and killed 500 men and some of the nobles, and then went on a rampage. When the king asked Esther what else he should do, she replied that the ten sons of Haman should be hanged, which was done. And the next day, on the 14th of the month Adar, the Jews killed three hundred more men. Elsewhere in the kingdom, the Jews received the help they needed on the 13th of Adar to slaughter 15,000 people, before resting and celebrating the next day, the 14th of Adar. In Susa, they rested and celebrated on the 15th of Adar.

Mordecai decided to make the 14th and 15th of the month of Adar a feast day, to celebrate the victory of the Jews over their enemies and their turnaround from mourning to joy, from torment to a day of celebration. For this purpose, he wrote to all the Jews to remember Haman's exactions and his sad fate and that of his children. This is why these days will be called "Purim", i.e. "Lots", because the Jewish lot has changed from suffering to joy. And they will be celebrated from generation to generation, and everywhere in the kingdom. Queen Esther and Mordecai confirmed in writing that this was a perpetual institution.

Chapter 10 (1-3)All the power and wealth of King Artaxerxes was written down in the book of the kings of Persia and Media. Then Mordecai succeeded the king and in turn was glorified for his greatness.
Chapter F (1-11)Mordecai gives us the interpretation of his dream at the beginning. The river is Esther, whom the king has married and made queen. The two dragons are Haman and Mordecai. The one nation is the one that has gathered to destroy the other nation, the Jews. Following the cry of the latter, the Lord intervened to perform signs and wonders. So He made two spells, one for the Gentiles, another for His people. On the day appointed by God for His judgment, He brought justice to His inheritance. Since then, the Jews gather on the 14th and 15th of the month of Adar (beginning of March) to demonstrate their joy in perpetuity.

It was the priest and Levite Dositheus who brought the letter on the "Lots" in the fourth year of the reign of Ptolemy (perhaps Ptolemy VIII, around -114) and Cleopatra (perhaps Cleopatra III, born in -160, died in -101). This letter would have been translated into Greek by Lysimachus.


Note:

  • In addition to the Greek text of Esther and its translation by the New Revised Standard Version (NRSV), we have added a third column, the English translation of the Hebrew text by the NRSV
  • The Greek text of the Septuagint contains additions to the Hebrew text: these additions are indicated by an alphabetical numbering of the chapter (A - F); it should be noted that the Greek text has sometimes omitted certain verses from the Hebrew, which we have indicated by an empty cell.

Full Text

VerseGreek TextTranslation from Greek (NRSV)Translation from Hebrew (NRSV)

Chapter A

1Ἔτους δευτέρου βασιλεύοντος Ἀρταξέρξου τοῦ μεγάλου τῇ μιᾷ τοῦ Νισα ἐνύπνιον εἶδεν Μαρδοχαῖος ὁ τοῦ Ιαιρου τοῦ Σεμειου τοῦ Κισαιου ἐκ φυλῆς Βενιαμιν,In the second year of the reign of Artaxerxes the Great, on the first day of Nisan, Mordecai son of Jair son of Shimei son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin, had a dream. 
2ἄνθρωπος Ιουδαῖος οἰκῶν ἐν Σούσοις τῇ πόλει, ἄνθρωπος μέγας θεραπεύων ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ τοῦ βασιλέως·He was a Jew living in the city of Susa, a great man, serving in the court of the king. 
3ἦν δὲ ἐκ τῆς αἰχμαλωσίας, ἧς ᾐχμαλώτευσεν Ναβουχοδονοσορ ὁ βασιλεὺς Βαβυλῶνος ἐξ Ιερουσαλημ μετὰ Ιεχονιου τοῦ βασιλέως τῆς Ιουδαίας.He was one of the captives whom King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon had brought from Jerusalem with King Jeconiah of Judea. And this was his dream: 
4καὶ τοῦτο αὐτοῦ τὸ ἐνύπνιον· καὶ ἰδοὺ φωναὶ καὶ θόρυβος, βρονταὶ καὶ σεισμός, τάραχος ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς·Noises and confusion, thunders and earthquake, tumult on the earth! 
5καὶ ἰδοὺ δύο δράκοντες μεγάλοι ἕτοιμοι προῆλθον ἀμφότεροι παλαίειν, καὶ ἐγένετο αὐτῶν φωνὴ μεγάλη·Then two great dragons came forward, both ready to fight, and they roared terribly. 
6καὶ τῇ φωνῇ αὐτῶν ἡτοιμάσθη πᾶν ἔθνος εἰς πόλεμον ὥστε πολεμῆσαι δικαίων ἔθνος.At their roaring every nation prepared for war, to fight against the righteous nation. 
7καὶ ἰδοὺ ἡμέρα σκότους καὶ γνόφου, θλῖψις καὶ στενοχωρία, κάκωσις καὶ τάραχος μέγας ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς·It was a day of darkness and gloom, of tribulation and distress, affliction and great tumult on the earth! 
8καὶ ἐταράχθη δίκαιον πᾶν ἔθνος φοβούμενοι τὰ ἑαυτῶν κακὰ καὶ ἡτοιμάσθησαν ἀπολέσθαι καὶ ἐβόησαν πρὸς τὸν θεόν.And the whole righteous nation was troubled; they feared the evils that threatened them, and were ready to perish. 
9ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς βοῆς αὐτῶν ἐγένετο ὡσανεὶ ἀπὸ μικρᾶς πηγῆς ποταμὸς μέγας, ὕδωρ πολύ·Then they cried out to God; and at their outcry, as though from a tiny spring, there came a great river, with abundant water; 
10k φῶς καὶ ὁ ἥλιος ἀνέτειλεν, καὶ οἱ ταπεινοὶ ὑψώθησαν καὶ κατέφαγον τοὺς ἐνδόξους.light came, and the sun rose, and the lowly were exalted and devoured those held in honor. 
11καὶ διεγερθεὶς Μαρδοχαῖος ὁ ἑωρακὼς τὸ ἐνύπνιον τοῦτο καὶ τί ὁ θεὸς βεβούλευται ποιῆσαι, εἶχεν αὐτὸ ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ καὶ ἐν παντὶ λόγῳ ἤθελεν ἐπιγνῶναι αὐτὸ ἕως τῆς νυκτός.Mordecai saw in this dream what God had determined to do, and after he awoke he had it on his mind, seeking all day to understand it in every detail. 
12καὶ ἡσύχασεν Μαρδοχαῖος ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ μετὰ Γαβαθα καὶ Θαρρα τῶν δύο εὐνούχων τοῦ βασιλέως τῶν φυλασσόντων τὴν αὐλὴνNow Mordecai took his rest in the courtyard with Gabatha and Tharra, the two eunuchs of the king who kept watch in the courtyard. 
13ἤκουσέν τε αὐτῶν τοὺς λογισμοὺς καὶ τὰς μερίμνας αὐτῶν ἐξηρεύνησεν καὶ ἔμαθεν ὅτι ἑτοιμάζουσιν τὰς χεῖρας ἐπιβαλεῖν Ἀρταξέρξῃ τῷ βασιλεῖ, καὶ ὑπέδειξεν τῷ βασιλεῖ περὶ αὐτῶν·He overheard their conversation and inquired into their purposes, and learned that they were preparing to lay hands on King Artaxerxes; and he informed the king concerning them. 
14καὶ ἐξήτασεν ὁ βασιλεὺς τοὺς δύο εὐνούχους, καὶ ὁμολογήσαντες ἀπήχθησαν.Then the king examined the two eunuchs, and after they had confessed it, they were led away to execution. 
15καὶ ἔγραψεν ὁ βασιλεὺς τοὺς λόγους τούτους εἰς μνημόσυνον, καὶ Μαρδοχαῖος ἔγραψεν περὶ τῶν λόγων τούτων·The king made a permanent record of these things, and Mordecai wrote an account of them. 
16καὶ ἐπέταξεν ὁ βασιλεὺς Μαρδοχαίῳ θεραπεύειν ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ δόματα περὶ τούτων.And the king ordered Mordecai to serve in the court, and rewarded him for these things. 
17καὶ ἦν Αμαν Αμαδαθου Βουγαῖος ἔνδοξος ἐνώπιον τοῦ βασιλέως· καὶ ἐζήτησεν κακοποιῆσαι τὸν Μαρδοχαῖον καὶ τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ ὑπὲρ τῶν δύο εὐνούχων τοῦ βασιλέως.But Haman son of Hammedatha, a Bougean, who was in great honor with the king, determined to injure Mordecai and his people because of the two eunuchs of the king.  

Chapter 1

1Καὶ ἐγένετο μετὰ τοὺς λόγους τούτους ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Ἀρταξέρξου – οὗτος ὁ Ἀρταξέρξης ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰνδικῆς ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι ἑπτὰ χωρῶν ἐκράτησενIt was after this that the following things happened in the days of Artaxerxes, the same Artaxerxes who ruled over one hundred twentyseven provinces from India to Ethiopia.This happened in the days of Ahasuerus, the same Ahasuerus who ruled over one hundred twenty-seven provinces from India to Ethiopia.
2ἐν αὐταῖς ταῖς ἡμέραις, ὅτε ἐθρονίσθη ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἀρταξέρξης ἐν Σούσοις τῇ πόλει,In those days, when King Artaxerxes was enthroned in the city of Susa,In those days when King Ahasuerus sat on his royal throne in the citadel of Susa,
3ἐν τῷ τρίτῳ ἔτει βασιλεύοντος αὐτοῦ δοχὴν ἐποίησεν τοῖς φίλοις καὶ τοῖς λοιποῖς ἔθνεσιν καὶ τοῖς Περσῶν καὶ Μήδων ἐνδόξοις καὶ τοῖς ἄρχουσιν τῶν σατραπῶν.in the third year of his reign, he gave a banquet for his Friends and other persons of various nations, the Persians and Median nobles, and the governors of the provinces.in the third year of his reign, he gave a banquet for all his officials and ministers. The army of Persia and Media and the nobles and governors of the provinces were present,
4καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα μετὰ τὸ δεῖξαι αὐτοῖς τὸν πλοῦτον τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν δόξαν τῆς εὐφροσύνης τοῦ πλούτου αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ ἡμέρας ἑκατὸν ὀγδοήκοντα,After this, when he had displayed to them the riches of his kingdom and the splendor of his bountiful celebration during the course of one hundred eighty days,while he displayed the great wealth of his kingdom and the splendor and pomp of his majesty for many days, one hundred eighty days in all.
5ὅτε δὲ ἀνεπληρώθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ γάμου, ἐποίησεν ὁ βασιλεὺς πότον τοῖς ἔθνεσιν τοῖς εὑρεθεῖσιν εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἐπὶ ἡμέρας ἓξ ἐν αὐλῇ οἴκου τοῦ βασιλέωςat the end of the festivity the king gave a drinking party for the people of various nations who lived in the city. This was held for six days in the courtyard of the royal palace,When these days were completed, the king gave for all the people present in the citadel of Susa, both great and small, a banquet lasting for seven days, in the court of the garden of the king’s palace.
6κεκοσμημένῃ βυσσίνοις καὶ καρπασίνοις τεταμένοις ἐπὶ σχοινίοις βυσσίνοις καὶ πορφυροῖς ἐπὶ κύβοις χρυσοῖς καὶ ἀργυροῖς ἐπὶ στύλοις παρίνοις καὶ λιθίνοις· κλῖναι χρυσαῖ καὶ ἀργυραῖ ἐπὶ λιθοστρώτου σμαραγδίτου λίθου καὶ πιννίνου καὶ παρίνου λίθου καὶ στρωμναὶ διαφανεῖς ποικίλως διηνθισμέναι, κύκλῳ ῥόδα πεπασμένα·which was adorned with curtains of fine linen and cotton, held by cords of purple linen attached to gold and silver blocks on pillars of marble and other stones. Gold and silver couches were placed on a mosaic floor of emerald, mother-of-pearl, and marble. There were coverings of gauze, embroidered in various colors, with roses arranged around them.There were white cotton curtains and blue hangings tied with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and marble pillars. There were couches of gold and silver on a mosaic pavement of porphyry, marble, motherof- pearl, and colored stones.
7ποτήρια χρυσᾶ καὶ ἀργυρᾶ καὶ ἀνθράκινον κυλίκιον προκείμενον ἀπὸ ταλάντων τρισμυρίων· οἶνος πολὺς καὶ ἡδύς, ὃν αὐτὸς ὁ βασιλεὺς ἔπινεν.The cups were of gold and silver, and a miniature cup was displayed, made of ruby, worth thirty thousand talents. There was abundant sweet wine, such as the king himself drank.Drinks were served in golden goblets, goblets of different kinds, and the royal wine was lavished according to the bounty of the king.
8ὁ δὲ πότος οὗτος οὐ κατὰ προκείμενον νόμον ἐγένετο, οὕτως δὲ ἠθέλησεν ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ ἐπέταξεν τοῖς οἰκονόμοις ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημα αὐτοῦ καὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων.The drinking was not according to a fixed rule; but the king wished to have it so, and he commanded his stewards to comply with his pleasure and with that of the guests.Drinking was by flagons, without restraint; for the king had given orders to all the officials of his palace to do as each one desired.
9καὶ Αστιν ἡ βασίλισσα ἐποίησε πότον ταῖς γυναιξὶν ἐν τοῖς βασιλείοις, ὅπου ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἀρταξέρξης.Meanwhile, Queen Vashti gave a drinking party for the women in the palace where King Artaxerxes was. The fall of Vashti and the king’s first edictFurthermore, Queen Vashti gave a banquet for the women in the palace of King Ahasuerus. Queen Vashti’s downfall
10ἐν δὲ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ἑβδόμῃ ἡδέως γενόμενος ὁ βασιλεὺς εἶπεν τῷ Αμαν καὶ Βαζαν καὶ Θαρρα καὶ Βωραζη καὶ Ζαθολθα καὶ Αβαταζα καὶ Θαραβα, τοῖς ἑπτὰ εὐνούχοις τοῖς διακόνοις τοῦ βασιλέως Ἀρταξέρξου,On the seventh day, when the king was in good humor, he told Haman, Bazan, Tharra, Boraze, Zatholtha, Abataza, and Tharaba, the seven eunuchs who served King Artaxerxes,On the seventh day, when the king was merry with wine, he commanded Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha and Abagtha, Zethar and Carkas, the seven eunuchs who attended him,
11εἰσαγαγεῖν τὴν βασίλισσαν πρὸς αὐτὸν βασιλεύειν αὐτὴν καὶ περιθεῖναι αὐτῇ τὸ διάδημα καὶ δεῖξαι αὐτὴν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἄρχουσιν καὶ τοῖς ἔθνεσιν τὸ κάλλος αὐτῆς, ὅτι καλὴ ἦν.to escort the queen to him in order to proclaim her as queen and to place the diadem on her head, and to have her display her beauty to all the governors and the people of various nations, for she was indeed a beautiful woman.to bring Queen Vashti before the king, wearing the royal crown, in order to show the peoples and the officials her beauty; for she was fair to behold.
12καὶ οὐκ εἰσήκουσεν αὐτοῦ Αστιν ἡ βασίλισσα ἐλθεῖν μετὰ τῶν εὐνούχων. καὶ ἐλυπήθη ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ ὠργίσθηBut Queen Vashti refused to obey him and would not come with the eunuchs. This offended the king and he became furious.But Queen Vashti refused to come at the king’s command conveyed by the eunuchs. At this the king was enraged, and his anger burned within him.
13καὶ εἶπεν τοῖς φίλοις αὐτοῦ Κατὰ ταῦτα ἐλάλησεν Αστιν, ποιήσατε οὖν περὶ τούτου νόμον καὶ κρίσιν.He said to his Friends, "This is how Vashti has answered me. Give therefore your ruling and judgment on this matter."Then the king consulted the sages who knew the laws (for this was the king’s procedure toward all who were versed in law and custom,
14καὶ προσῆλθεν αὐτῷ Αρκεσαιος καὶ Σαρσαθαιος καὶ Μαλησεαρ οἱ ἄρχοντες Περσῶν καὶ Μήδων οἱ ἐγγὺς τοῦ βασιλέως οἱ πρῶτοι παρακαθήμενοι τῷ βασιλεῖArkesaeus, Sarsathaeus, and Malesear, then the governors of the Persians and Medes who were closest to the king — Arkesaeus, Sarsathaeus, and Malesear, who sat beside him in the chief seats — came to himand those next to him were Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan, the seven officials of Persia and Media, who had access to the king, and sat first in the kingdom):
15καὶ ἀπήγγειλαν αὐτῷ κατὰ τοὺς νόμους ὡς δεῖ ποιῆσαι Αστιν τῇ βασιλίσσῃ, ὅτι οὐκ ἐποίησεν τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως προσταχθέντα διὰ τῶν εὐνούχων.and told him what must be done to Queen Vashti for not obeying the order that the king had sent her by the eunuchs."According to the law, what is to be done to Queen Vashti because she has not performed the command of King Ahasuerus conveyed by the eunuchs?"
16καὶ εἶπεν ὁ Μουχαιος πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα καὶ τοὺς ἄρχοντας Οὐ τὸν βασιλέα μόνον ἠδίκησεν Αστιν ἡ βασίλισσα, ἀλλὰ καὶ πάντας τοὺς ἄρχοντας καὶ τοὺς ἡγουμένους τοῦ βασιλέωςThen Muchaeus said to the king and the governors, "Queen Vashti has insulted not only the king but also all the king’s governors and officials"Then Memucan said in the presence of the king and the officials, "Not only has Queen Vashti done wrong to the king, but also to all the officials and all the peoples who are in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus.
17[καὶ γὰρ διηγήσατο αὐτοῖς τὰ ῥήματα τῆς βασιλίσσης καὶ ὡς ἀντεῖπεν τῷ βασιλεῖ]. ὡς οὖν ἀντεῖπεν τῷ βασιλεῖ Ἀρταξέρξῃ,(for he had reported to them what the queen had said and how she had defied the king). "And just as she defied King Artaxerxes,For this deed of the queen will be made known to all women, causing them to look with contempt on their husbands, since they will say, ’King Ahasuerus commanded Queen Vashti to be brought before him, and she did not come.’
18οὕτως σήμερον αἱ τυραννίδες αἱ λοιπαὶ τῶν ἀρχόντων Περσῶν καὶ Μήδων ἀκούσασαι τὰ τῷ βασιλεῖ λεχθέντα ὑπ αὐτῆς τολμήσουσιν ὁμοίως ἀτιμάσαι τοὺς ἄνδρας αὐτῶν.so now the other ladies who are wives of the Persian and Median governors, on hearing what she has said to the king, will likewise dare to insult their husbands.This very day the noble ladies of Persia and Media who have heard of the queen’s behavior will rebel against the king’s officials, and there will be no end of contempt and wrath!
19εἰ οὖν δοκεῖ τῷ βασιλεῖ, προσταξάτω βασιλικόν, καὶ γραφήτω κατὰ τοὺς νόμους Μήδων καὶ Περσῶν· καὶ μὴ ἄλλως χρησάσθω, μηδὲ εἰσελθάτω ἔτι ἡ βασίλισσα πρὸς αὐτόν, καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτῆς δότω ὁ βασιλεὺς γυναικὶ κρείττονι αὐτῆς.If therefore it pleases the king, let him issue a royal decree, inscribed in accordance with the laws of the Medes and Persians so that it may not be altered, that the queen may no longer come into his presence; but let the king give her royal rank to a woman better than she.If it pleases the king, let a royal order go out from him, and let it be written among the laws of the Persians and the Medes so that it may not be altered, that Vashti is never again to come before King Ahasuerus; and let the king give her royal position to another who is better than she.
20καὶ ἀκουσθήτω ὁ νόμος ὁ ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως, ὃν ἐὰν ποιῇ, ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ αὐτοῦ, καὶ οὕτως πᾶσαι αἱ γυναῖκες περιθήσουσιν τιμὴν τοῖς ἀνδράσιν ἑαυτῶν ἀπὸ πτωχοῦ ἕως πλουσίου.Let whatever law the king enacts be proclaimed in his kingdom, and thus all women will give honor to their husbands, rich and poor alike."So when the decree made by the king is proclaimed throughout all his kingdom, vast as it is, all women will give honor to their husbands, high and low alike."
21καὶ ἤρεσεν ὁ λόγος τῷ βασιλεῖ καὶ τοῖς ἄρχουσι, καὶ ἐποίησεν ὁ βασιλεὺς καθὰ ἐλάλησεν ὁ Μουχαιος·This speech pleased the king and the governors, and the king did as Muchaeus had recommended.This advice pleased the king and the officials, and the king did as Memucan proposed;
22καὶ ἀπέστειλεν εἰς πᾶσαν τὴν βασιλείαν κατὰ χώραν κατὰ τὴν λέξιν αὐτῶν ὥστε εἶναι φόβον αὐτοῖς ἐν ταῖς οἰκίαις αὐτῶν.The king sent the decree into all his kingdom, to every province in its own language, so that in every house respect would be shown to every husband. he sent letters to all the royal provinces, to every province in its own script and to every people in its own language, declaring that every man should be master in his own house.

Chapter 2

1Καὶ μετὰ τοὺς λόγους τούτους ἐκόπασεν ὁ βασιλεὺς τοῦ θυμοῦ καὶ οὐκέτι ἐμνήσθη τῆς Αστιν μνημονεύων οἷα ἐλάλησεν καὶ ὡς κατέκρινεν αὐτήν.After these things, the king’s anger abated, and he no longer was concerned about Vashti or remembered what he had said and how he had condemned her.After these things, when the anger of King Ahasuerus had abated, he remembered Vashti and what she had done and what had been decreed against her.
2καὶ εἶπαν οἱ διάκονοι τοῦ βασιλέως Ζητηθήτω τῷ βασιλεῖ κοράσια ἄφθορα καλὰ τῷ εἴδει·Then the king’s servants said, "Let beautiful and virtuous girls be sought out for the king.Then the king’s servants who attended him said, "Let beautiful young virgins be sought out for the king.
3καὶ καταστήσει ὁ βασιλεὺς κωμάρχας ἐν πάσαις ταῖς χώραις τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐπιλεξάτωσαν κοράσια παρθενικὰ καλὰ τῷ εἴδει εἰς Σουσαν τὴν πόλιν εἰς τὸν γυναικῶνα, καὶ παραδοθήτωσαν τῷ εὐνούχῳ τοῦ βασιλέως τῷ φύλακι τῶν γυναικῶν, καὶ δοθήτω σμῆγμα καὶ ἡ λοιπὴ ἐπιμέλεια·The king shall appoint officers in all the provinces of his kingdom, and they shall select beautiful young virgins to be brought to the harem in Susa, the capital. Let them be entrusted to the king’s eunuch who is in charge of the women, and let ointments and whatever else they need be given them.And let the king appoint commissioners in all the provinces of his kingdom to gather all the beautiful young virgins to the harem in the citadel of Susa under custody of Hegai, the king’s eunuch, who is in charge of the women; let their cosmetic treatments be given them.
4καὶ ἡ γυνή, ἣ ἂν ἀρέσῃ τῷ βασιλεῖ, βασιλεύσει ἀντὶ Αστιν. καὶ ἤρεσεν τῷ βασιλεῖ τὸ πρᾶγμα, καὶ ἐποίησεν οὕτως.And the woman who pleases the king shall be queen instead of Vashti." This pleased the king, and he did so.And let the girl who pleases the king be queen instead of Vashti." This pleased the king, and he did so.
5Καὶ ἄνθρωπος ἦν Ιουδαῖος ἐν Σούσοις τῇ πόλει, καὶ ὄνομα αὐτῷ Μαρδοχαῖος ὁ τοῦ Ιαιρου τοῦ Σεμειου τοῦ Κισαιου ἐκ φυλῆς Βενιαμιν,Now there was a Jew in Susa the capital whose name was Mordecai son of Jair son of Shimei son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin;Now there was a Jew in the citadel of Susa whose name was Mordecai son of Jair son of Shimei son of Kish, a Benjaminite.
6ὃς ἦν αἰχμάλωτος ἐξ Ιερουσαλημ, ἣν ᾐχμαλώτευσεν Ναβουχοδονοσορ βασιλεὺς Βαβυλῶνος.he had been taken captive from Jerusalem among those whom King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon had captured.Kish had been carried away from Jerusalem among the captives carried away with King Jeconiah of Judah, whom King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon had carried away.
7καὶ ἦν τούτῳ παῖς θρεπτή, θυγάτηρ Αμιναδαβ ἀδελφοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ, καὶ ὄνομα αὐτῇ Εσθηρ· ἐν δὲ τῷ μεταλλάξαι αὐτῆς τοὺς γονεῖς ἐπαίδευσεν αὐτὴν ἑαυτῷ εἰς γυναῖκα· καὶ ἦν τὸ κοράσιον καλὸν τῷ εἴδει.And he had a foster child, the daughter of his father’s brother, Aminadab, and her name was Esther. When her parents died, he brought her up to womanhood as his own. The girl was beautiful in appearance.Mordecai had brought up Hadassah, that is Esther, his cousin, for she had neither father nor mother; the girl was fair and beautiful, and when her father and her mother died, Mordecai adopted her as his own daughter.
8καὶ ὅτε ἠκούσθη τὸ τοῦ βασιλέως πρόσταγμα, συνήχθησαν κοράσια πολλὰ εἰς Σουσαν τὴν πόλιν ὑπὸ χεῖρα Γαι, καὶ ἤχθη Εσθηρ πρὸς Γαι τὸν φύλακα τῶν γυναικῶν.So, when the decree of the king was proclaimed, and many girls were gathered in Susa the capital in custody of Gai, Esther also was brought to Gai, who had custody of the women.So when the king’s order and his edict were proclaimed, and when many young women were gathered in the citadel of Susa in custody of Hegai, Esther also was taken into the king’s palace and put in custody of Hegai, who had charge of the women.
9καὶ ἤρεσεν αὐτῷ τὸ κοράσιον καὶ εὗρεν χάριν ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔσπευσεν αὐτῇ δοῦναι τὸ σμῆγμα καὶ τὴν μερίδα καὶ τὰ ἑπτὰ κοράσια τὰ ἀποδεδειγμένα αὐτῇ ἐκ βασιλικοῦ καὶ ἐχρήσατο αὐτῇ καλῶς καὶ ταῖς ἅβραις αὐτῆς ἐν τῷ γυναικῶνι·The girl pleased him and won his favor, and he quickly provided her with ointments and her portion of food, as well as seven maids chosen from the palace; he treated her and her maids with special favor in the harem.The girl pleased him and won his favor, and he quickly provided her with her cosmetic treatments and her portion of food, and with seven chosen maids from the king’s palace, and advanced her and her maids to the best place in the harem.
10καὶ οὐχ ὑπέδειξεν Εσθηρ τὸ γένος αὐτῆς οὐδὲ τὴν πατρίδα, ὁ γὰρ Μαρδοχαῖος ἐνετείλατο αὐτῇ μὴ ἀπαγγεῖλαι.Now Esther had not disclosed her people or country, for Mordecai had commanded her not to make it known.Esther did not reveal her people or kindred, for Mordecai had charged her not to tell.
11καθ ἑκάστην δὲ ἡμέραν ὁ Μαρδοχαῖος περιεπάτει κατὰ τὴν αὐλὴν τὴν γυναικείαν ἐπισκοπῶν τί Εσθηρ συμβήσεται.And every day Mordecai walked in the courtyard of the harem, to see what would happen to Esther.Every day Mordecai would walk around in front of the court of the harem, to learn how Esther was and how she fared.
12οὗτος δὲ ἦν καιρὸς κορασίου εἰσελθεῖν πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα, ὅταν ἀναπληρώσῃ μῆνας δέκα δύο· οὕτως γὰρ ἀναπληροῦνται αἱ ἡμέραι τῆς θεραπείας, μῆνας ἓξ ἀλειφόμεναι ἐν σμυρνίνῳ ἐλαίῳ καὶ μῆνας ἓξ ἐν τοῖς ἀρώμασιν καὶ ἐν τοῖς σμήγμασιν τῶν γυναικῶν,Now the period after which a girl was to go to the king was twelve months. During this time the days of beautification are completed — six months while they are anointing themselves with oil of myrrh, and six months with spices and ointments for women.The turn came for each girl to go in to King Ahasuerus, after being twelve months under the regulations for the women, since this was the regular period of their cosmetic treatment, six months with oil of myrrh and six months with perfumes and cosmetics for women.
13καὶ τότε εἰσπορεύεται πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα· καὶ ὃ ἐὰν εἴπῃ, παραδώσει αὐτῇ συνεισέρχεσθαι αὐτῇ ἀπὸ τοῦ γυναικῶνος ἕως τῶν βασιλείων.Then she goes in to the king; she is handed to the person appointed, and goes with him from the harem to the king’s palace.When the girl went in to the king she was given whatever she asked for to take with her from the harem to the king’s palace.
14δείλης εἰσπορεύεται καὶ πρὸς ἡμέραν ἀποτρέχει εἰς τὸν γυναικῶνα τὸν δεύτερον, οὗ Γαι ὁ εὐνοῦχος τοῦ βασιλέως ὁ φύλαξ τῶν γυναικῶν, καὶ οὐκέτι εἰσπορεύεται πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα, ἐὰν μὴ κληθῇ ὀνόματι.In the evening she enters and in the morning she departs to the second harem, where Gai the king’s eunuch is in charge of the women; and she does not go in to the king again unless she is summoned by name.In the evening she went in; then in the morning she came back to the second harem in custody of Shaashgaz, the king’s eunuch, who was in charge of the concubines; she did not go in to the king again, unless the king delighted in her and she was summoned by name.
15ἐν δὲ τῷ ἀναπληροῦσθαι τὸν χρόνον Εσθηρ τῆς θυγατρὸς Αμιναδαβ ἀδελφοῦ πατρὸς Μαρδοχαίου εἰσελθεῖν πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα οὐδὲν ἠθέτησεν ὧν αὐτῇ ἐνετείλατο ὁ εὐνοῦχος ὁ φύλαξ τῶν γυναικῶν· ἦν γὰρ Εσθηρ εὑρίσκουσα χάριν παρὰ πάντων τῶν βλεπόντων αὐτήν.When the time was fulfilled for Esther daughter of Aminadab, the brother of Mordecai’s father, to go in to the king, she neglected none of the things that Gai, the eunuch in charge of the women, had commanded. Now Esther found favor in the eyes of all who saw her.When the turn came for Esther daughter of Abihail the uncle of Mordecai, who had adopted her as his own daughter, to go in to the king, she asked for nothing except what Hegai the king’s eunuch, who had charge of the women, advised. Now Esther was admired by all who saw her.
16καὶ εἰσῆλθεν Εσθηρ πρὸς Ἀρταξέρξην τὸν βασιλέα τῷ δωδεκάτῳ μηνί, ὅς ἐστιν Αδαρ, τῷ ἑβδόμῳ ἔτει τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ.So Esther went in to King Artaxerxes in the twelfth month, which is Adar, in the seventh year of his reign.When Esther was taken to King Ahasuerus in his royal palace in the tenth month, which is the month of Tebeth, in the seventh year of his reign,
17καὶ ἠράσθη ὁ βασιλεὺς Εσθηρ, καὶ εὗρεν χάριν παρὰ πάσας τὰς παρθένους, καὶ ἐπέθηκεν αὐτῇ τὸ διάδημα τὸ γυναικεῖον.And the king loved Esther and she found favor beyond all the other virgins, so he put on her the queen’s diadem.the king loved Esther more than all the other women; of all the virgins she won his favor and devotion, so that he set the royal crown on her head and made her queen instead of Vashti.
18καὶ ἐποίησεν ὁ βασιλεὺς πότον πᾶσι τοῖς φίλοις αὐτοῦ καὶ ταῖς δυνάμεσιν ἐπὶ ἡμέρας ἑπτὰ καὶ ὕψωσεν τοὺς γάμους Εσθηρ καὶ ἄφεσιν ἐποίησεν τοῖς ὑπὸ τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ.Then the king gave a banquet lasting seven days for all his Friends and the officers to celebrate his marriage to Esther; and he granted a remission of taxes to those who were under his rule.Then the king gave a great banquet to all his officials and ministers — "Esther’s banquet." He also granted a holiday to the provinces, and gave gifts with royal liberality.
19ὁ δὲ Μαρδοχαῖος ἐθεράπευεν ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ.Meanwhile Mordecai was serving in the courtyard.When the virgins were being gathered together, Mordecai was sitting at the king’s gate.
20ἡ δὲ Εσθηρ οὐχ ὑπέδειξεν τὴν πατρίδα αὐτῆς· οὕτως γὰρ ἐνετείλατο αὐτῇ Μαρδοχαῖος φοβεῖσθαι τὸν θεὸν καὶ ποιεῖν τὰ προστάγματα αὐτοῦ, καθὼς ἦν μετ αὐτοῦ, καὶ Εσθηρ οὐ μετήλλαξεν τὴν ἀγωγὴν αὐτῆς.Esther had not disclosed her country — such were the instructions of Mordecai; but she was to fear God and keep his laws, just as she had done when she was with him. So Esther did not change her mode of life.Now Esther had not revealed her kindred or her people, as Mordecai had charged her; for Esther obeyed Mordecai just as when she was brought up by him.
21Καὶ ἐλυπήθησαν οἱ δύο εὐνοῦχοι τοῦ βασιλέως οἱ ἀρχισωματοφύλακες ὅτι προήχθη Μαρδοχαῖος, καὶ ἐζήτουν ἀποκτεῖναι Ἀρταξέρξην τὸν βασιλέα.Now the king’s eunuchs, who were chief bodyguards, were angry because of Mordecai’s advancement, and they plotted to kill King Artaxerxes.In those days, while Mordecai was sitting at the king’s gate, Bigthan and Teresh, two of the king’s eunuchs, who guarded the threshold, became angry and conspired to assassinate King Ahasuerus.
22καὶ ἐδηλώθη Μαρδοχαίῳ ὁ λόγος, καὶ ἐσήμανεν Εσθηρ, καὶ αὐτὴ ἐνεφάνισεν τῷ βασιλεῖ τὰ τῆς ἐπιβουλῆς.The matter became known to Mordecai, and he warned Esther, who in turn revealed the plot to the king.But the matter came to the knowledge of Mordecai, and he told it to Queen Esther, and Esther told the king in the name of Mordecai.
23ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς ἤτασεν τοὺς δύο εὐνούχους καὶ ἐκρέμασεν αὐτούς· καὶ προσέταξεν ὁ βασιλεὺς καταχωρίσαι εἰς μνημόσυνον ἐν τῇ βασιλικῇ βιβλιοθήκῃ ὑπὲρ τῆς εὐνοίας Μαρδοχαίου ἐν ἐγκωμίῳ.He investigated the two eunuchs and hanged them. Then the king ordered a memorandum to be deposited in the royal library in praise of the goodwill shown by Mordecai. When the affair was investigated and found to be so, both the men were hanged on the gallows. It was recorded in the book of the annals in the presence of the king.

Chapter 3

1Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἐδόξασεν ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἀρταξέρξης Αμαν Αμαδαθου Βουγαῖον καὶ ὕψωσεν αὐτόν, καὶ ἐπρωτοβάθρει πάντων τῶν φίλων αὐτοῦ.After these events King Artaxerxes promoted Haman son of Hammedatha, a Bougean, advancing him and granting him precedence over all the king’s Friends.After these things King Ahasuerus promoted Haman son of Hammedatha the Agagite, and advanced him and set his seat above all the officials who were with him.
2καὶ πάντες οἱ ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ προσεκύνουν αὐτῷ, οὕτως γὰρ προσέταξεν ὁ βασιλεὺς ποιῆσαι· ὁ δὲ Μαρδοχαῖος οὐ προσεκύνει αὐτῷ.So all who were at court used to do obeisance to Haman, for so the king had commanded to be done. Mordecai, however, did not do obeisance.And all the king’s servants who were at the king’s gate bowed down and did obeisance to Haman; for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai did not bow down or do obeisance.
3καὶ ἐλάλησαν οἱ ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ τοῦ βασιλέως τῷ Μαρδοχαίῳ Μαρδοχαῖε, τί παρακούεις τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως λεγόμενα;Then the king’s courtiers said to Mordecai, "Mordecai, why do you disobey the king’s command?"Then the king’s servants who were at the king’s gate said to Mordecai, "Why do you disobey the king’s command?"
4καθ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν ἐλάλουν αὐτῷ, καὶ οὐχ ὑπήκουεν αὐτῶν· καὶ ὑπέδειξαν τῷ Αμαν Μαρδοχαῖον τοῖς τοῦ βασιλέως λόγοις ἀντιτασσόμενον· καὶ ὑπέδειξεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Μαρδοχαῖος ὅτι Ιουδαῖός ἐστιν.Day after day they spoke to him, but he would not listen to them. Then they informed Haman that Mordecai was resisting the king’s command. Mordecai had told them that he was a Jew.When they spoke to him day after day and he would not listen to them, they told Haman, in order to see whether Mordecai’s words would avail; for he had told them that he was a Jew.
5καὶ ἐπιγνοὺς Αμαν ὅτι οὐ προσκυνεῖ αὐτῷ Μαρδοχαῖος, ἐθυμώθη σφόδραSo when Haman learned that Mordecai was not doing obeisance to him, he became furiously angry,When Haman saw that Mordecai did not bow down or do obeisance to him, Haman was infuriated.
6καὶ ἐβουλεύσατο ἀφανίσαι πάντας τοὺς ὑπὸ τὴν Ἀρταξέρξου βασιλείαν Ιουδαίους.and plotted to destroy all the Jews under Artaxerxes’ rule.But he thought it beneath him to lay hands on Mordecai alone. So, having been told who Mordecai’s people were, Haman plotted to destroy all the Jews, the people of Mordecai, throughout the whole kingdom of Ahasuerus.
7καὶ ἐποίησεν ψήφισμα ἐν ἔτει δωδεκάτῳ τῆς βασιλείας Ἀρταξέρξου καὶ ἔβαλεν κλήρους ἡμέραν ἐξ ἡμέρας καὶ μῆνα ἐκ μηνὸς ὥστε ἀπολέσαι ἐν μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ τὸ γένος Μαρδοχαίου, καὶ ἔπεσεν ὁ κλῆρος εἰς τὴν τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτην τοῦ μηνός, ὅς ἐστιν Αδαρ.In the twelfth year of King Artaxerxes Haman came to a decision by casting lots, taking the days and the months one by one, to fix on one day to destroy the whole race of Mordecai. The lot fell on the fourteenth day of the month of Adar.In the first month, which is the month of Nisan, in the twelfth year of King Ahasuerus, they cast Pur — which means "the lot" — before Haman for the day and for the month, and the lot fell on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar.
8καὶ ἐλάλησεν πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα Ἀρταξέρξην λέγων Ὑπάρχει ἔθνος διεσπαρμένον ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ἐν πάσῃ τῇ βασιλείᾳ σου, οἱ δὲ νόμοι αὐτῶν ἔξαλλοι παρὰ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη, τῶν δὲ νόμων τοῦ βασιλέως παρακούουσιν, καὶ οὐ συμφέρει τῷ βασιλεῖ ἐᾶσαι αὐτούς·Then Haman said to King Artaxerxes, "There is a certain nation scattered among the other nations in all your kingdom; their laws are different from those of every other nation, and they do not keep the laws of the king. It is not expedient for the king to tolerate them.Then Haman said to King Ahasuerus, "There is a certain people scattered and separated among the peoples in all the provinces of your kingdom; their laws are different from those of every other people, and they do not keep the king’s laws, so that it is not appropriate for the king to tolerate them.
9εἰ δοκεῖ τῷ βασιλεῖ, δογματισάτω ἀπολέσαι αὐτούς, κἀγὼ διαγράψω εἰς τὸ γαζοφυλάκιον τοῦ βασιλέως ἀργυρίου τάλαντα μύρια.If it pleases the king, let it be decreed that they are to be destroyed, and I will pay ten thousand talents of silver into the king’s treasury."If it pleases the king, let a decree be issued for their destruction, and I will pay ten thousand talents of silver into the hands of those who have charge of the king’s business, so that they may put it into the king’s treasuries."
10καὶ περιελόμενος ὁ βασιλεὺς τὸν δακτύλιον ἔδωκεν εἰς χεῖρα τῷ Αμαν σφραγίσαι κατὰ τῶν γεγραμμένων κατὰ τῶν Ιουδαίων.So the king took off his signet ring and gave it to Haman to seal the decree that was to be written against the Jews.So the king took his signet ring from his hand and gave it to Haman son of Hammedatha the Agagite, the enemy of the Jews.
11καὶ εἶπεν ὁ βασιλεὺς τῷ Αμαν Τὸ μὲν ἀργύριον ἔχε, τῷ δὲ ἔθνει χρῶ ὡς βούλει.The king told Haman, "Keep the money, and do whatever you want with that nation."The king said to Haman, "The money is given to you, and the people as well, to do with them as it seems good to you."
12καὶ ἐκλήθησαν οἱ γραμματεῖς τοῦ βασιλέως μηνὶ πρώτῳ τῇ τρισκαιδεκάτῃ καὶ ἔγραψαν, ὡς ἐπέταξεν Αμαν, τοῖς στρατηγοῖς καὶ τοῖς ἄρχουσιν κατὰ πᾶσαν χώραν ἀπὸ Ἰνδικῆς ἕως τῆς Αἰθιοπίας, ταῖς ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι ἑπτὰ χώραις, τοῖς τε ἄρχουσι τῶν ἐθνῶν κατὰ τὴν αὐτῶν λέξιν δι Ἀρταξέρξου τοῦ βασιλέως.So on the thirteenth day of the first month the king’s secretaries were summoned, and in accordance with Haman’s instructions they wrote in the name of King Artaxerxes to the magistrates and the governors in every province from India to Ethiopia. There were one hundred twenty-seven provinces in all, and the governors were addressed each in his own language.Then the king’s secretaries were summoned on the thirteenth day of the first month, and an edict, according to all that Haman commanded, was written to the king’s satraps and to the governors over all the provinces and to the officials of all the peoples, to every province in its own script and every people in its own language; it was written in the name of King Ahasuerus and sealed with the king’s ring.
13καὶ ἀπεστάλη διὰ βιβλιαφόρων εἰς τὴν Ἀρταξέρξου βασιλείαν ἀφανίσαι τὸ γένος τῶν Ιουδαίων ἐν ἡμέρᾳ μιᾷ μηνὸς δωδεκάτου, ὅς ἐστιν Αδαρ, καὶ διαρπάσαι τὰ ὑπάρχοντα αὐτῶν.Instructions were sent by couriers throughout all the empire of Artaxerxes to destroy the Jewish people on a given day of the twelfth month, which is Adar, and to plunder their goods. Letters were sent by couriers to all the king’s provinces, giving orders to destroy, to kill, and to annihilate all Jews, young and old, women and children, in one day, the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar, and to plunder their goods.

Chapter B

1τῆς δὲ ἐπιστολῆς ἐστιν τὸ ἀντίγραφον τόδε Βασιλεὺς μέγας Ἀρταξέρξης τοῖς ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰνδικῆς ἕως τῆς Αἰθιοπίας ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι ἑπτὰ χωρῶν ἄρχουσι καὶ τοπάρχαις ὑποτεταγμένοις τάδε γράφειThis is a copy of the letter: "The Great King, Artaxerxes, writes the following to the governors of the hundred twenty-seven provinces from India to Ethiopia and to the officials under them: 
2Πολλῶν ἐπάρξας ἐθνῶν καὶ πάσης ἐπικρατήσας οἰκουμένης ἐβουλήθην, μὴ τῷ θράσει τῆς ἐξουσίας ἐπαιρόμενος, ἐπιεικέστερον δὲ καὶ μετὰ ἠπιότητος ἀεὶ διεξάγων, τοὺς τῶν ὑποτεταγμένων ἀκυμάτους διὰ παντὸς καταστῆσαι βίους, τήν τε βασιλείαν ἥμερον καὶ πορευτὴν μέχρι περάτων παρεξόμενος ἀνανεώσασθαί τε τὴν ποθουμένην τοῖς πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις εἰρήνην."Having become ruler of many nations and master of the whole world (not elated with presumption of authority but always acting reasonably and with kindness), I have determined to settle the lives of my subjects in lasting tranquility and, in order to make my kingdom peaceable and open to travel throughout all its extent, to restore the peace desired by all people. 
3πυθομένου δέ μου τῶν συμβούλων πῶς ἂν ἀχθείη τοῦτο ἐπὶ πέρας, σωφροσύνῃ παρ ἡμῖν διενέγκας καὶ ἐν τῇ εὐνοίᾳ ἀπαραλλάκτως καὶ βεβαίᾳ πίστει ἀποδεδειγμένος καὶ δεύτερον τῶν βασιλειῶν γέρας ἀπενηνεγμένος Αμαν"When I asked my counselors how this might be accomplished, Haman — who excels among us in sound judgment, and is distinguished for his unchanging goodwill and steadfast fidelity, and has attained the second place in the kingdom — 
4ἐπέδειξεν ἡμῖν ἐν πάσαις ταῖς κατὰ τὴν οἰκουμένην φυλαῖς ἀναμεμεῖχθαι δυσμενῆ λαόν τινα τοῖς νόμοις ἀντίθετον πρὸς πᾶν ἔθνος τά τε τῶν βασιλέων παραπέμποντας διηνεκῶς διατάγματα πρὸς τὸ μὴ κατατίθεσθαι τὴν ὑφ ἡμῶν κατευθυνομένην ἀμέμπτως συναρχίαν.pointed out to us that among all the nations in the world there is scattered a certain hostile people, who have laws contrary to those of every nation and continually disregard the ordinances of kings, so that the unifying of the kingdom that we honorably intend cannot be brought about. 
5διειληφότες οὖν τόδε τὸ ἔθνος μονώτατον ἐν ἀντιπαραγωγῇ παντὶ διὰ παντὸς ἀνθρώπῳ κείμενον διαγωγὴν νόμων ξενίζουσαν παραλλάσσον καὶ δυσνοοῦν τοῖς ἡμετέροις πράγμασιν τὰ χείριστα συντελοῦν κακὰ καὶ πρὸς τὸ μὴ τὴν βασιλείαν εὐσταθείας τυγχάνειν·We understand that this people, and it alone, stands constantly in opposition to every nation, perversely following a strange manner of life and laws, and is ill-disposed to our government, doing all the harm they can so that our kingdom may not attain stability. 
6προστετάχαμεν οὖν τοὺς σημαινομένους ὑμῖν ἐν τοῖς γεγραμμένοις ὑπὸ Αμαν τοῦ τεταγμένου ἐπὶ τῶν πραγμάτων καὶ δευτέρου πατρὸς ἡμῶν πάντας σὺν γυναιξὶ καὶ τέκνοις ἀπολέσαι ὁλορριζεὶ ταῖς τῶν ἐχθρῶν μαχαίραις ἄνευ παντὸς οἴκτου καὶ φειδοῦς τῇ τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτῃ τοῦ δωδεκάτου μηνὸς Αδαρ τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος ἔτους,"Therefore we have decreed that those indicated to you in the letters written by Haman, who is in charge of affairs and is our second father, shall all — wives and children included — be utterly destroyed by the swords of their enemies, without pity or restraint, on the fourteenth day of the twelfth month, Adar, of this present year, 
7ὅπως οἱ πάλαι καὶ νῦν δυσμενεῖς ἐν ἡμέρᾳ μιᾷ βιαίως εἰς τὸν ᾅδην κατελθόντες εἰς τὸν μετέπειτα χρόνον εὐσταθῆ καὶ ἀτάραχα παρέχωσιν ἡμῖν διὰ τέλους τὰ πράγματα.so that those who have long been hostile and remain so may in a single day go down in violence to Hades, and leave our government completely secure and untroubled hereafter."  

Chapter 3

14τὰ δὲ ἀντίγραφα τῶν ἐπιστολῶν ἐξετίθετο κατὰ χώραν, καὶ προσετάγη πᾶσι τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ἑτοίμους εἶναι εἰς τὴν ἡμέραν ταύτην.Copies of the document were posted in every province, and all the nations were ordered to be prepared for that day.A copy of the document was to be issued as a decree in every province by proclamation, calling on all the peoples to be ready for that day.
15ἐσπεύδετο δὲ τὸ πρᾶγμα καὶ εἰς Σουσαν· ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς καὶ Αμαν ἐκωθωνίζοντο, ἐταράσσετο δὲ ἡ πόλις.The matter was expedited also in Susa. And while the king and Haman caroused together, the city of Susa was thrown into confusion. The couriers went quickly by order of the king, and the decree was issued in the citadel of Susa. The king and Haman sat down to drink; but the city of Susa was thrown into confusion.

Chapter 4

1Ὁ δὲ Μαρδοχαῖος ἐπιγνοὺς τὸ συντελούμενον διέρρηξεν τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐνεδύσατο σάκκον καὶ κατεπάσατο σποδὸν καὶ ἐκπηδήσας διὰ τῆς πλατείας τῆς πόλεως ἐβόα φωνῇ μεγάλῃ Αἴρεται ἔθνος μηδὲν ἠδικηκός.When Mordecai learned of all that had been done, he tore his clothes, put on sackcloth, and sprinkled himself with ashes; then he rushed through the street of the city, shouting loudly: "An innocent nation is being destroyed!"When Mordecai learned all that had been done, Mordecai tore his clothes and put on sackcloth and ashes, and went through the city, wailing with a loud and bitter cry;
2καὶ ἦλθεν ἕως τῆς πύλης τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ ἔστη· οὐ γὰρ ἦν ἐξὸν αὐτῷ εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν σάκκον ἔχοντι καὶ σποδόν.He got as far as the king’s gate, and there he stopped, because no one was allowed to enter the courtyard clothed in sackcloth and ashes.he went up to the entrance of the king’s gate, for no one might enter the king’s gate clothed with sackcloth.
3καὶ ἐν πάσῃ χώρᾳ, οὗ ἐξετίθετο τὰ γράμματα, κραυγὴ καὶ κοπετὸς καὶ πένθος μέγα τοῖς Ιουδαίοις, σάκκον καὶ σποδὸν ἔστρωσαν ἑαυτοῖς.And in every province where the king’s proclamation had been posted there was a loud cry of mourning and lamentation among the Jews, and they put on sackcloth and ashes.In every province, wherever the king’s command and his decree came, there was great mourning among the Jews, with fasting and weeping and lamenting, and most of them lay in sackcloth and ashes.
4καὶ εἰσῆλθον αἱ ἅβραι καὶ οἱ εὐνοῦχοι τῆς βασιλίσσης καὶ ἀνήγγειλαν αὐτῇ, καὶ ἐταράχθη ἀκούσασα τὸ γεγονὸς καὶ ἀπέστειλεν στολίσαι τὸν Μαρδοχαῖον καὶ ἀφελέσθαι αὐτοῦ τὸν σάκκον, ὁ δὲ οὐκ ἐπείσθη.When the queen’s maids and eunuchs came and told her, she was deeply troubled by what she heard had happened, and sent some clothes to Mordecai to put on instead of sackcloth; but he would not consent.When Esther’s maids and her eunuchs came and told her, the queen was deeply distressed; she sent garments to clothe Mordecai, so that he might take off his sackcloth; but he would not accept them.
5ἡ δὲ Εσθηρ προσεκαλέσατο Αχραθαῖον τὸν εὐνοῦχον αὐτῆς, ὃς παρειστήκει αὐτῇ, καὶ ἀπέστειλεν μαθεῖν αὐτῇ παρὰ τοῦ Μαρδοχαίου τὸ ἀκριβές·Then Esther summoned Hachratheus, the eunuch who attended her, and ordered him to get accurate information for her from Mordecai.Then Esther called for Hathach, one of the king’s eunuchs, who had been appointed to attend her, and ordered him to go to Mordecai to learn what was happening and why.
6  Hathach went out to Mordecai in the open square of the city in front of the king’s gate,
7ὁ δὲ Μαρδοχαῖος ὑπέδειξεν αὐτῷ τὸ γεγονὸς καὶ τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν, ἣν ἐπηγγείλατο Αμαν τῷ βασιλεῖ εἰς τὴν γάζαν ταλάντων μυρίων, ἵνα ἀπολέσῃ τοὺς Ιουδαίους·So Mordecai told him what had happened and how Haman had promised to pay ten thousand talents into the royal treasury to bring about the destruction of the Jews.and Mordecai told him all that had happened to him, and the exact sum of money that Haman had promised to pay into the king’s treasuries for the destruction of the Jews.
8καὶ τὸ ἀντίγραφον τὸ ἐν Σούσοις ἐκτεθὲν ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀπολέσθαι αὐτοὺς ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ δεῖξαι τῇ Εσθηρ καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ ἐντείλασθαι αὐτῇ εἰσελθούσῃ παραιτήσασθαι τὸν βασιλέα καὶ ἀξιῶσαι αὐτὸν περὶ τοῦ λαοῦ μνησθεῖσα ἡμερῶν ταπεινώσεώς σου ὡς ἐτράφης ἐν χειρί μου, διότι Αμαν ὁ δευτερεύων τῷ βασιλεῖ ἐλάλησεν καθ ἡμῶν εἰς θάνατον· ἐπικάλεσαι τὸν κύριον καὶ λάλησον τῷ βασιλεῖ περὶ ἡμῶν καὶ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἐκ θανάτου.He also gave him a copy of what had been posted in Susa for their destruction, to show to Esther; and he told him to charge her to go in to the king and plead for his favor in behalf of the people. "Remember," he said, "the days when you were an ordinary person, being brought up under my care — for Haman, who stands next to the king, has spoken against us and demands our death. Call upon the Lord; then speak to the king in our behalf, and save us from death."Mordecai also gave him a copy of the written decree issued in Susa for their destruction, that he might show it to Esther, explain it to her, and charge her to go to the king to make supplication to him and entreat him for her people.
9εἰσελθὼν δὲ ὁ Αχραθαῖος ἐλάλησεν αὐτῇ πάντας τοὺς λόγους τούτους.Hachratheus went in and told Esther all these things.Hathach went and told Esther what Mordecai had said.
10εἶπεν δὲ Εσθηρ πρὸς Αχραθαῖον Πορεύθητι πρὸς Μαρδοχαῖον καὶ εἰπὸν ὅτιAnd she said to him, "Go to Mordecai and say,Then Esther spoke to Hathach and gave him a message for Mordecai, saying,
11Τὰ ἔθνη πάντα τῆς βασιλείας γινώσκει ὅτι πᾶς ἄνθρωπος ἢ γυνή, ὃς εἰσελεύσεται πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τὴν ἐσωτέραν ἄκλητος, οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτῷ σωτηρία· πλὴν ᾧ ἐκτείνει ὁ βασιλεὺς τὴν χρυσῆν ῥάβδον, οὗτος σωθήσεται· κἀγὼ οὐ κέκλημαι εἰσελθεῖν πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα, εἰσὶν αὗται ἡμέραι τριάκοντα.’All nations of the empire know that if any man or woman goes to the king inside the inner court without being called, there is no escape for that person. Only the one to whom the king stretches out the golden scepter is safe — and it is now thirty days since I was called to go to the king.’""All the king’s servants and the people of the king’s provinces know that if any man or woman goes to the king inside the inner court without being called, there is but one law — all alike are to be put to death. Only if the king holds out the golden scepter to someone, may that person live. I myself have not been called to come in to the king for thirty days."
12καὶ ἀπήγγειλεν Αχραθαῖος Μαρδοχαίῳ πάντας τοὺς λόγους Εσθηρ.When Hachratheus delivered her entire message to Mordecai,When they told Mordecai what Esther had said,
13καὶ εἶπεν Μαρδοχαῖος πρὸς Αχραθαῖον Πορεύθητι καὶ εἰπὸν αὐτῇ Εσθηρ, μὴ εἴπῃς σεαυτῇ ὅτι σωθήσῃ μόνη ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ παρὰ πάντας τοὺς Ιουδαίους·Mordecai told him to go back and say to her, "Esther, do not say to yourself that you alone among all the Jews will escape alive.Mordecai told them to reply to Esther, "Do not think that in the king’s palace you will escape any more than all the other Jews.
14ὡς ὅτι ἐὰν παρακούσῃς ἐν τούτῳ τῷ καιρῷ, ἄλλοθεν βοήθεια καὶ σκέπη ἔσται τοῖς Ιουδαίοις, σὺ δὲ καὶ ὁ οἶκος τοῦ πατρός σου ἀπολεῖσθε· καὶ τίς οἶδεν εἰ εἰς τὸν καιρὸν τοῦτον ἐβασίλευσας;For if you keep quiet at such a time as this, help and protection will come to the Jews from another quarter, but you and your father’s family will perish. Yet, who knows whether it was not for such a time as this that you were made queen?"For if you keep silence at such a time as this, relief and deliverance will rise for the Jews from another quarter, but you and your father’s family will perish. Who knows? Perhaps you have come to royal dignity for just such a time as this."
15καὶ ἐξαπέστειλεν Εσθηρ τὸν ἥκοντα πρὸς αὐτὴν πρὸς Μαρδοχαῖον λέγουσαThen Esther gave the messenger this answer to take back to Mordecai:Then Esther said in reply to Mordecai,
16Βαδίσας ἐκκλησίασον τοὺς Ιουδαίους τοὺς ἐν Σούσοις καὶ νηστεύσατε ἐπ ἐμοὶ καὶ μὴ φάγητε μηδὲ πίητε ἐπὶ ἡμέρας τρεῖς νύκτα καὶ ἡμέραν, κἀγὼ δὲ καὶ αἱ ἅβραι μου ἀσιτήσομεν, καὶ τότε εἰσελεύσομαι πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα παρὰ τὸν νόμον, ἐὰν καὶ ἀπολέσθαι με ᾖ."Go and gather all the Jews who are in Susa and fast on my behalf; for three days and nights do not eat or drink, and my maids and I will also go without food. After that I will go to the king, contrary to the law, even if I must die.""Go, gather all the Jews to be found in Susa, and hold a fast on my behalf, and neither eat nor drink for three days, night or day. I and my maids will also fast as you do. After that I will go to the king, though it is against the law; and if I perish, I perish."
17Καὶ βαδίσας Μαρδοχαῖος ἐποίησεν ὅσα ἐνετείλατο αὐτῷ Εσθηρ,So Mordecai went away and did what Esther had told him to do. Mordecai then went away and did everything as Esther had ordered him.

Chapter C

1καὶ ἐδεήθη κυρίου μνημονεύων πάντα τὰ ἔργα κυρίου καὶ εἶπενThen Mordecai prayed to the Lord, calling to remembrance all the works of the Lord. 
2Κύριε κύριε βασιλεῦ πάντων κρατῶν, ὅτι ἐν ἐξουσίᾳ σου τὸ πᾶν ἐστιν, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ ἀντιδοξῶν σοι ἐν τῷ θέλειν σε σῶσαι τὸν Ισραηλ·He said, "O Lord, Lord, you rule as King over all things, for the universe is in your power and there is no one who can oppose you when it is your will to save Israel, 
3ὅτι σὺ ἐποίησας τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν καὶ πᾶν θαυμαζόμενον ἐν τῇ ὑπ οὐρανὸνfor you have made heaven and earth and every wonderful thing under heaven. 
4καὶ κύριος εἶ πάντων, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ὃς ἀντιτάξεταί σοι τῷ κυρίῳ. You are Lord of all, and there is no one who can resist you, the Lord. 
5σὺ πάντα γινώσκεις· σὺ οἶδας, κύριε, ὅτι οὐκ ἐν ὕβρει οὐδὲ ἐν ὑπερηφανίᾳ οὐδὲ ἐν φιλοδοξίᾳ ἐποίησα τοῦτο, τὸ μὴ προσκυνεῖν τὸν ὑπερήφανον Αμαν,You know all things; you know, O Lord, that it was not in insolence or pride or for any love of glory that I did this, and refused to bow down to this proud Haman; 
6ὅτι ηὐδόκουν φιλεῖν πέλματα ποδῶν αὐτοῦ πρὸς σωτηρίαν Ισραηλ· for I would have been willing to kiss the soles of his feet to save Israel! 
7ἀλλὰ ἐποίησα τοῦτο, ἵνα μὴ θῶ δόξαν ἀνθρώπου ὑπεράνω δόξης θεοῦ, καὶ οὐ προσκυνήσω οὐδένα πλὴν σοῦ τοῦ κυρίου μου καὶ οὐ ποιήσω αὐτὰ ἐν ὑπερηφανίᾳ.But I did this so that I might not set human glory above the glory of God, and I will not bow down to anyone but you, who are my Lord; and I will not do these things in pride. 
8καὶ νῦν, κύριε ὁ θεὸς ὁ βασιλεὺς ὁ θεὸς Αβρααμ, φεῖσαι τοῦ λαοῦ σου, ὅτι ἐπιβλέπουσιν ἡμῖν εἰς καταφθορὰν καὶ ἐπεθύμησαν ἀπολέσαι τὴν ἐξ ἀρχῆς κληρονομίαν σου·And now, O Lord God and King, God of Abraham, spare your people; for the eyes of our foes are upon us to annihilate us, and they desire to destroy the inheritance that has been yours from the beginning. 
9μὴ ὑπερίδῃς τὴν μερίδα σου, ἣν σεαυτῷ ἐλυτρώσω ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου·Do not neglect your portion, which you redeemed for yourself out of the land of Egypt. 
10ἐπάκουσον τῆς δεήσεώς μου καὶ ἱλάσθητι τῷ κλήρῳ σου καὶ στρέψον τὸ πένθος ἡμῶν εἰς εὐωχίαν, ἵνα ζῶντες ὑμνῶμέν σου τὸ ὄνομα, κύριε, καὶ μὴ ἀφανίσῃς στόμα αἰνούντων σοι. Hear my prayer, and have mercy upon your inheritance; turn our mourning into feasting that we may live and sing praise to your name, O Lord; do not destroy the lips of those who praise you." 
11καὶ πᾶς Ισραηλ ἐκέκραξαν ἐξ ἰσχύος αὐτῶν, ὅτι θάνατος αὐτῶν ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς αὐτῶν.And all Israel cried out mightily, for their death was before their eyes. 
12Καὶ Εσθηρ ἡ βασίλισσα κατέφυγεν ἐπὶ τὸν κύριον ἐν ἀγῶνι θανάτου κατειλημμένη Then Queen Esther, seized with deadly anxiety, fled to the Lord. 
13καὶ ἀφελομένη τὰ ἱμάτια τῆς δόξης αὐτῆς ἐνεδύσατο ἱμάτια στενοχωρίας καὶ πένθους καὶ ἀντὶ τῶν ὑπερηφάνων ἡδυσμάτων σποδοῦ καὶ κοπριῶν ἔπλησεν τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτῆς καὶ τὸ σῶμα αὐτῆς ἐταπείνωσεν σφόδρα καὶ πάντα τόπον κόσμου ἀγαλλιάματος αὐτῆς ἔπλησε στρεπτῶν τριχῶν αὐτῆς She took off her splendid apparel and put on the garments of distress and mourning, and instead of costly perfumes she covered her head with ashes and dung, and she utterly humbled her body; every part that she loved to adorn she covered with her tangled hair. 
14καὶ ἐδεῖτο κυρίου θεοῦ Ισραηλ καὶ εἶπεν Κύριέ μου ὁ βασιλεὺς ἡμῶν, σὺ εἶ μόνος· βοήθησόν μοι τῇ μόνῃ καὶ μὴ ἐχούσῃ βοηθὸν εἰ μὴ σέ, She prayed to the Lord God of Israel, and said: "O my Lord, you only are our king; help me, who am alone and have no helper but you, 
15ὅτι κίνδυνός μου ἐν χειρί μου. for my danger is in my hand. 
16ἐγὼ ἤκουον ἐκ γενετῆς μου ἐν φυλῇ πατριᾶς μου ὅτι σύ, κύριε, ἔλαβες τὸν Ισραηλ ἐκ πάντων τῶν ἐθνῶν καὶ τοὺς πατέρας ἡμῶν ἐκ πάντων τῶν προγόνων αὐτῶν εἰς κληρονομίαν αἰώνιον καὶ ἐποίησας αὐτοῖς ὅσα ἐλάλησας. Ever since I was born I have heard in the tribe of my family that you, O Lord, took Israel out of all the nations, and our ancestors from among all their forebears, for an everlasting inheritance, and that you did for them all that you promised. 
17καὶ νῦν ἡμάρτομεν ἐνώπιόν σου, καὶ παρέδωκας ἡμᾶς εἰς χεῖρας τῶν ἐχθρῶν ἡμῶν, And now we have sinned before you, and you have handed us over to our enemies 
18ἀνθ ὧν ἐδοξάσαμεν τοὺς θεοὺς αὐτῶν· δίκαιος εἶ, κύριε. because we glorified their gods. You are righteous, O Lord! 
19καὶ νῦν οὐχ ἱκανώθησαν ἐν πικρασμῷ δουλείας ἡμῶν, ἀλλὰ ἔθηκαν τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῶν ἐπὶ τὰς χεῖρας τῶν εἰδώλων αὐτῶν And now they are not satisfied that we are in bitter slavery, but they have covenanted with their idols 
20ἐξᾶραι ὁρισμὸν στόματός σου καὶ ἀφανίσαι κληρονομίαν σου καὶ ἐμφράξαι στόμα αἰνούντων σοι καὶ σβέσαι δόξαν οἴκου σου καὶ θυσιαστήριόν σου to abolish what your mouth has ordained, and to destroy your inheritance, to stop the mouths of those who praise you and to quench your altar and the glory of your house, 
21καὶ ἀνοῖξαι στόμα ἐθνῶν εἰς ἀρετὰς ματαίων καὶ θαυμασθῆναι βασιλέα σάρκινον εἰς αἰῶνα.to open the mouths of the nations for the praise of vain idols, and to magnify forever a mortal king. 
22μὴ παραδῷς, κύριε, τὸ σκῆπτρόν σου τοῖς μὴ οὖσιν, καὶ μὴ καταγελασάτωσαν ἐν τῇ πτώσει ἡμῶν, ἀλλὰ στρέψον τὴν βουλὴν αὐτῶν ἐπ αὐτούς, τὸν δὲ ἀρξάμενον ἐφ ἡμᾶς παραδειγμάτισον."O Lord, do not surrender your scepter to what has no being; and do not let them laugh at our downfall; but turn their plan against them, and make an example of him who began this against us. 
23μνήσθητι, κύριε, γνώσθητι ἐν καιρῷ θλίψεως ἡμῶν καὶ ἐμὲ θάρσυνον, βασιλεῦ τῶν θεῶν καὶ πάσης ἀρχῆς ἐπικρατῶν·Remember, O Lord; make yourself known in this time of our affliction, and give me courage, O King of the gods and Master of all dominion! 
24δὸς λόγον εὔρυθμον εἰς τὸ στόμα μου ἐνώπιον τοῦ λέοντος καὶ μετάθες τὴν καρδίαν αὐτοῦ εἰς μῖσος τοῦ πολεμοῦντος ἡμᾶς εἰς συντέλειαν αὐτοῦ καὶ τῶν ὁμονοούντων αὐτῷ·Put eloquent speech in my mouth before the lion, and turn his heart to hate the man who is fighting against us, so that there may be an end of him and those who agree with him. 
25ἡμᾶς δὲ ῥῦσαι ἐν χειρί σου καὶ βοήθησόν μοι τῇ μόνῃ καὶ μὴ ἐχούσῃ εἰ μὴ σέ, κύριε.But save us by your hand, and help me, who am alone and have no helper but you, O Lord. 
26πάντων γνῶσιν ἔχεις καὶ οἶδας ὅτι ἐμίσησα δόξαν ἀνόμων καὶ βδελύσσομαι κοίτην ἀπεριτμήτων καὶ παντὸς ἀλλοτρίου.You have knowledge of all things, and you know that I hate the splendor of the wicked and abhor the bed of the uncircumcised and of any alien. 
27σὺ οἶδας τὴν ἀνάγκην μου, ὅτι βδελύσσομαι τὸ σημεῖον τῆς ὑπερηφανίας μου, ὅ ἐστιν ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς μου ἐν ἡμέραις ὀπτασίας μου· βδελύσσομαι αὐτὸ ὡς ῥάκος καταμηνίων καὶ οὐ φορῶ αὐτὸ ἐν ἡμέραις ἡσυχίας μου.You know my necessity — that I abhor the sign of my proud position, which is upon my head on days when I appear in public. I abhor it like a filthy rag, and I do not wear it on the days when I am at leisure. 
28καὶ οὐκ ἔφαγεν ἡ δούλη σου τράπεζαν Αμαν καὶ οὐκ ἐδόξασα συμπόσιον βασιλέως οὐδὲ ἔπιον οἶνον σπονδῶν·And your servant has not eaten at Haman’s table, and I have not honored the king’s feast or drunk the wine of libations. 
29καὶ οὐκ ηὐφράνθη ἡ δούλη σου ἀφ ἡμέρας μεταβολῆς μου μέχρι νῦν πλὴν ἐπὶ σοί, κύριε ὁ θεὸς Αβρααμ.Your servant has had no joy since the day that I was brought here until now, except in you, O Lord God of Abraham. 
30ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἰσχύων ἐπὶ πάντας, εἰσάκουσον φωνὴν ἀπηλπισμένων καὶ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἐκ χειρὸς τῶν πονηρευομένων· καὶ ῥῦσαί με ἐκ τοῦ φόβου μου.O God, whose might is over all, hear the voice of the despairing, and save us from the hands of evildoers. And save me from my fear!"  

Chapter D

1Καὶ ἐγενήθη ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ τρίτῃ, ὡς ἐπαύσατο προσευχομένη, ἐξεδύσατο τὰ ἱμάτια τῆς θεραπείας καὶ περιεβάλετο τὴν δόξαν αὐτῆςOn the third day, when she ended her prayer, she took off the garments in which she had worshiped, and arrayed herself in splendid attire. 
2καὶ γενηθεῖσα ἐπιφανὴς ἐπικαλεσαμένη τὸν πάντων ἐπόπτην θεὸν καὶ σωτῆρα παρέλαβεν τὰς δύο ἅβραςThen, majestically adorned, after invoking the aid of the allseeing God and Savior, she took two maids with her; 
3καὶ τῇ μὲν μιᾷ ἐπηρείδετο ὡς τρυφερευομένη, on one she leaned gently for support, 
4ἡ δὲ ἑτέρα ἐπηκολούθει κουφίζουσα τὴν ἔνδυσιν αὐτῆς, while the other followed, carrying her train. 
5καὶ αὐτὴ ἐρυθριῶσα ἀκμῇ κάλλους αὐτῆς, καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτῆς ἱλαρὸν ὡς προσφιλές, ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῆς ἀπεστενωμένη ἀπὸ τοῦ φόβου. She was radiant with perfect beauty, and she looked happy, as if beloved, but her heart was frozen with fear. 
6καὶ εἰσελθοῦσα πάσας τὰς θύρας κατέστη ἐνώπιον τοῦ βασιλέως, καὶ αὐτὸς ἐκάθητο ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ καὶ πᾶσαν στολὴν τῆς ἐπιφανείας αὐτοῦ ἐνεδεδύκει, ὅλος διὰ χρυσοῦ καὶ λίθων πολυτελῶν, καὶ ἦν φοβερὸς σφόδρα. When she had gone through all the doors, she stood before the king. He was seated on his royal throne, clothed in the full array of his majesty, all covered with gold and precious stones. He was most terrifying. 
7καὶ ἄρας τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ πεπυρωμένον δόξῃ ἐν ἀκμῇ θυμοῦ ἔβλεψεν, καὶ ἔπεσεν ἡ βασίλισσα καὶ μετέβαλεν τὸ χρῶμα αὐτῆς ἐν ἐκλύσει καὶ κατεπέκυψεν ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν τῆς ἅβρας τῆς προπορευομένης. Lifting his face, flushed with splendor, he looked at her in fierce anger. The queen faltered, and turned pale and faint, and collapsed on the head of the maid who went in front of her. 
8καὶ μετέβαλεν ὁ θεὸς τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ βασιλέως εἰς πραύτητα, καὶ ἀγωνιάσας ἀνεπήδησεν ἀπὸ τοῦ θρόνου αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀνέλαβεν αὐτὴν ἐπὶ τὰς ἀγκάλας αὐτοῦ, μέχρις οὗ κατέστη, καὶ παρεκάλει αὐτὴν λόγοις εἰρηνικοῖς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇThen God changed the spirit of the king to gentleness, and in alarm he sprang from his throne and took her in his arms until she came to herself. He comforted her with soothing words, and said to her, 
9Τί ἐστιν, Εσθηρ; ἐγὼ ὁ ἀδελφός σου, θάρσει,"What is it, Esther? I am your husband. Take courage; 
10οὐ μὴ ἀποθάνῃς, ὅτι κοινὸν τὸ πρόσταγμα ἡμῶν ἐστιν· You shall not die, for our law applies only to our subjects. 
11πρόσελθε. Come near." 
12καὶ ἄρας τὴν χρυσῆν ῥάβδον ἐπέθηκεν ἐπὶ τὸν τράχηλον αὐτῆς καὶ ἠσπάσατο αὐτὴν καὶ εἶπεν Λάλησόν μοι.Then he raised the golden scepter and touched her neck with it; he embraced her, and said, "Speak to me." 
13καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Εἶδόν σε, κύριε, ὡς ἄγγελον θεοῦ, καὶ ἐταράχθη ἡ καρδία μου ἀπὸ φόβου τῆς δόξης σου· She said to him, "I saw you, my lord, like an angel of God, and my heart was shaken with fear at your glory. 
14ὅτι θαυμαστὸς εἶ, κύριε, καὶ τὸ πρόσωπόν σου χαρίτων μεστόν. For you are wonderful, my lord, and your countenance is full of grace." 
15ἐν δὲ τῷ διαλέγεσθαι αὐτὴν ἔπεσεν ἀπὸ ἐκλύσεως αὐτῆς, And while she was speaking, she fainted and fell. 
16καὶ ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐταράσσετο, καὶ πᾶσα ἡ θεραπεία αὐτοῦ παρεκάλει αὐτήν.Then the king was agitated, and all his servants tried to comfort her.  

Chapter 5

1  On the third day Esther put on her royal robes and stood in the inner court of the king’s palace, opposite the king’s hall. The king was sitting on his royal throne inside the palace opposite the entrance to the palace.
2  As soon as the king saw Queen Esther standing in the court, she won his favor and he held out to her the golden scepter that was in his hand. Then Esther approached and touched the top of the scepter.
3Kαὶ εἶπεν ὁ βασιλεύς Τί θέλεις, Εσθηρ, καὶ τί σού ἐστιν τὸ ἀξίωμα; ἕως τοῦ ἡμίσους τῆς βασιλείας μου καὶ ἔσται σοι.The king said to her, "What do you wish, Esther? What is your request? It shall be given you, even to half of my kingdom."The king said to her, "What is it, Queen Esther? What is your request? It shall be given you, even to the half of my kingdom."
4εἶπεν δὲ Εσθηρ Ἡμέρα μου ἐπίσημος σήμερόν ἐστιν· εἰ οὖν δοκεῖ τῷ βασιλεῖ, ἐλθάτω καὶ αὐτὸς καὶ Αμαν εἰς τὴν δοχήν, ἣν ποιήσω σήμερον.And Esther said, "Today is a special day for me. If it pleases the king, let him and Haman come to the dinner that I shall prepare today."Then Esther said, "If it pleases the king, let the king and Haman come today to a banquet that I have prepared for the king."
5καὶ εἶπεν ὁ βασιλεύς Κατασπεύσατε Αμαν, ὅπως ποιήσωμεν τὸν λόγον Εσθηρ· καὶ παραγίνονται ἀμφότεροι εἰς τὴν δοχήν, ἣν εἶπεν Εσθηρ.Then the king said, "Bring Haman quickly, so that we may do as Esther desires." So they both came to the dinner that Esther had spoken about.Then the king said, "Bring Haman quickly, so that we may do as Esther desires." So the king and Haman came to the banquet that Esther had prepared.
6ἐν δὲ τῷ πότῳ εἶπεν ὁ βασιλεὺς πρὸς Εσθηρ Τί ἐστιν, βασίλισσα Εσθηρ; καὶ ἔσται σοι ὅσα ἀξιοῖς.While they were drinking wine, the king said to Esther, "What is it, Queen Esther? It shall be granted you."While they were drinking wine, the king said to Esther, "What is your petition? It shall be granted you. And what is your request? Even to the half of my kingdom, it shall be fulfilled."
7καὶ εἶπεν Τὸ αἴτημά μου καὶ τὸ ἀξίωμά μου·She said, "My petition and request is:Then Esther said, "This is my petition and request:
8εἰ εὗρον χάριν ἐνώπιον τοῦ βασιλέως, ἐλθάτω ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ Αμαν ἐπὶ τὴν αὔριον εἰς τὴν δοχήν, ἣν ποιήσω αὐτοῖς, καὶ αὔριον ποιήσω τὰ αὐτά.if I have found favor in the sight of the king, let the king and Haman come to the dinner that I shall prepare them, and tomorrow I will do as I have done today."If I have won the king’s favor, and if it pleases the king to grant my petition and fulfill my request, let the king and Haman come tomorrow to the banquet that I will prepare for them, and then I will do as the king has said."
9Καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ὁ Αμαν ἀπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως ὑπερχαρὴς εὐφραινόμενος· ἐν δὲ τῷ ἰδεῖν Αμαν Μαρδοχαῖον τὸν Ιουδαῖον ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ ἐθυμώθη σφόδρα.So Haman went out from the king joyful and glad of heart. But when he saw Mordecai the Jew in the courtyard, he was filled with anger.Haman went out that day happy and in good spirits. But when Haman saw Mordecai in the king’s gate, and observed that he neither rose nor trembled before him, he was infuriated with Mordecai;
10καὶ εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὰ ἴδια ἐκάλεσεν τοὺς φίλους καὶ Ζωσαραν τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦNevertheless, he went home and summoned his friends and his wife Zosara.nevertheless Haman restrained himself and went home. Then he sent and called for his friends and his wife Zeresh,
11καὶ ὑπέδειξεν αὐτοῖς τὸν πλοῦτον αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν δόξαν, ἣν ὁ βασιλεὺς αὐτῷ περιέθηκεν, καὶ ὡς ἐποίησεν αὐτὸν πρωτεύειν καὶ ἡγεῖσθαι τῆς βασιλείας.And he told them about his riches and the honor that the king had bestowed on him, and how he had advanced him to be the first in the kingdom.and Haman recounted to them the splendor of his riches, the number of his sons, all the promotions with which the king had honored him, and how he had advanced him above the officials and the ministers of the king.
12καὶ εἶπεν Αμαν Οὐ κέκληκεν ἡ βασίλισσα μετὰ τοῦ βασιλέως οὐδένα εἰς τὴν δοχὴν ἀλλ ἢ ἐμέ, καὶ εἰς τὴν αὔριον κέκλημαι·And Haman said, "The queen did not invite anyone to the dinner with the king except me; and I am invited again tomorrow.Haman added, "Even Queen Esther let no one but myself come with the king to the banquet that she prepared. Tomorrow also I am invited by her, together with the king.
13καὶ ταῦτά μοι οὐκ ἀρέσκει, ὅταν ἴδω Μαρδοχαῖον τὸν Ιουδαῖον ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ.But these things give me no pleasure as long as I see Mordecai the Jew in the courtyard."Yet all this does me no good so long as I see the Jew Mordecai sitting at the king’s gate."
14καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτὸν Ζωσαρα ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ καὶ οἱ φίλοι Κοπήτω σοι ξύλον πηχῶν πεντήκοντα, ὄρθρου δὲ εἰπὸν τῷ βασιλεῖ καὶ κρεμασθήτω Μαρδοχαῖος ἐπὶ τοῦ ξύλου· σὺ δὲ εἴσελθε εἰς τὴν δοχὴν σὺν τῷ βασιλεῖ καὶ εὐφραίνου. καὶ ἤρεσεν τὸ ῥῆμα τῷ Αμαν, καὶ ἡτοιμάσθη τὸ ξύλον.His wife Zosara and his friends said to him, "Let a gallows be made, fifty cubits high, and in the morning tell the king to have Mordecai hanged on it. Then, go merrily with the king to the dinner." This advice pleased Haman, and so the gallows was prepared. Then his wife Zeresh and all his friends said to him, "Let a gallows fifty cubits high be made, and in the morning tell the king to have Mordecai hanged on it; then go with the king to the banquet in good spirits." This advice pleased Haman, and he had the gallows made.

1Ὁ δὲ κύριος ἀπέστησεν τὸν ὕπνον ἀπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως τὴν νύκτα ἐκείνην, καὶ εἶπεν τῷ διδασκάλῳ αὐτοῦ εἰσφέρειν γράμματα μνημόσυνα τῶν ἡμερῶν ἀναγινώσκειν αὐτῷ.That night the Lord took sleep from the king, so he gave orders to his secretary to bring the book of daily records, and to read to him.On that night the king could not sleep, and he gave orders to bring the book of records, the annals, and they were read to the king.
2εὗρεν δὲ τὰ γράμματα τὰ γραφέντα περὶ Μαρδοχαίου, ὡς ἀπήγγειλεν τῷ βασιλεῖ περὶ τῶν δύο εὐνούχων τοῦ βασιλέως ἐν τῷ φυλάσσειν αὐτοὺς καὶ ζητῆσαι ἐπιβαλεῖν τὰς χεῖρας Ἀρταξέρξῃ.He found the words written about Mordecai, how he had told the king about the two royal eunuchs who were on guard and sought to lay hands on King Artaxerxes.It was found written how Mordecai had told about Bigthana and Teresh, two of the king’s eunuchs, who guarded the threshold, and who had conspired to assassinate King Ahasuerus.
3εἶπεν δὲ ὁ βασιλεύς Τίνα δόξαν ἢ χάριν ἐποιήσαμεν τῷ Μαρδοχαίῳ; καὶ εἶπαν οἱ διάκονοι τοῦ βασιλέως Οὐκ ἐποίησας αὐτῷ οὐδέν.The king said, "What honor or dignity did we bestow on Mordecai?" The king’s servants said, "You have not done anything for him."Then the king said, "What honor or distinction has been bestowed on Mordecai for this?" The king’s servants who attended him said, "Nothing has been done for him."
4ἐν δὲ τῷ πυνθάνεσθαι τὸν βασιλέα περὶ τῆς εὐνοίας Μαρδοχαίου ἰδοὺ Αμαν ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ· εἶπεν δὲ ὁ βασιλεύς Τίς ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ; ὁ δὲ Αμαν εἰσῆλθεν εἰπεῖν τῷ βασιλεῖ κρεμάσαι τὸν Μαρδοχαῖον ἐπὶ τῷ ξύλῳ, ᾧ ἡτοίμασεν.While the king was inquiring about the goodwill shown by Mordecai, Haman was in the courtyard. The king asked, "Who is in the courtyard?" Now Haman had come to speak to the king about hanging Mordecai on the gallows that he had prepared.The king said, "Who is in the court?" Now Haman had just entered the outer court of the king’s palace to speak to the king about having Mordecai hanged on the gallows that he had prepared for him.
5καὶ εἶπαν οἱ διάκονοι τοῦ βασιλέως Ἰδοὺ Αμαν ἕστηκεν ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ· καὶ εἶπεν ὁ βασιλεύς Καλέσατε αὐτόν.The servants of the king answered, "Haman is standing in the courtyard." And the king said, "Summon him."So the king’s servants told him, "Haman is there, standing in the court." The king said, "Let him come in."
6εἶπεν δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς τῷ Αμαν Τί ποιήσω τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ, ὃν ἐγὼ θέλω δοξάσαι; εἶπεν δὲ ἐν ἑαυτῷ Αμαν Τίνα θέλει ὁ βασιλεὺς δοξάσαι εἰ μὴ ἐμέ;Then the king said to Haman, "What shall I do for the person whom I wish to honor?" And Haman said to himself, "Whom would the king wish to honor more than me?"So Haman came in, and the king said to him, "What shall be done for the man whom the king wishes to honor?" Haman said to himself, "Whom would the king wish to honor more than me?"
7εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα Ἄνθρωπον, ὃν ὁ βασιλεὺς θέλει δοξάσαι,So he said to the king, "For a person whom the king wishes to honor,So Haman said to the king, "For the man whom the king wishes to honor,
8ἐνεγκάτωσαν οἱ παῖδες τοῦ βασιλέως στολὴν βυσσίνην, ἣν ὁ βασιλεὺς περιβάλλεται, καὶ ἵππον, ἐφ ὃν ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐπιβαίνει,let the king’s servants bring out the fine linen robe that the king has worn, and the horse on which the king rides,let royal robes be brought, which the king has worn, and a horse that the king has ridden, with a royal crown on its head.
9καὶ δότω ἑνὶ τῶν φίλων τοῦ βασιλέως τῶν ἐνδόξων καὶ στολισάτω τὸν ἄνθρωπον, ὃν ὁ βασιλεὺς ἀγαπᾷ, καὶ ἀναβιβασάτω αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸν ἵππον καὶ κηρυσσέτω διὰ τῆς πλατείας τῆς πόλεως λέγων Οὕτως ἔσται παντὶ ἀνθρώπῳ, ὃν ὁ βασιλεὺς δοξάζει.and let both be given to one of the king’s honored Friends, and let him robe the person whom the king loves and mount him on the horse, and let it be proclaimed through the open square of the city, saying, ’Thus shall it be done to everyone whom the king honors.’"Let the robes and the horse be handed over to one of the king’s most noble officials; let him robe the man whom the king wishes to honor, and let him conduct the man on horseback through the open square of the city, proclaiming before him: ’Thus shall it be done for the man whom the king wishes to honor.’"
10εἶπεν δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς τῷ Αμαν Καθὼς ἐλάλησας, οὕτως ποίησον τῷ Μαρδοχαίῳ τῷ Ιουδαίῳ τῷ θεραπεύοντι ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ, καὶ μὴ παραπεσάτω σου λόγος ὧν ἐλάλησας.Then the king said to Haman, "You have made an excellent suggestion! Do just as you have said for Mordecai the Jew, who is on duty in the courtyard. And let nothing be omitted from what you have proposed."Then the king said to Haman, "Quickly, take the robes and the horse, as you have said, and do so to the Jew Mordecai who sits at the king’s gate. Leave out nothing that you have mentioned."
11ἔλαβεν δὲ Αμαν τὴν στολὴν καὶ τὸν ἵππον καὶ ἐστόλισεν τὸν Μαρδοχαῖον καὶ ἀνεβίβασεν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸν ἵππον καὶ διῆλθεν διὰ τῆς πλατείας τῆς πόλεως καὶ ἐκήρυσσεν λέγων Οὕτως ἔσται παντὶ ἀνθρώπῳ, ὃν ὁ βασιλεὺς θέλει δοξάσαι.So Haman got the robe and the horse; he put the robe on Mordecai and made him ride through the open square of the city, proclaiming, "Thus shall it be done to everyone whom the king wishes to honor."So Haman took the robes and the horse and robed Mordecai and led him riding through the open square of the city, proclaiming, "Thus shall it be done for the man whom the king wishes to honor."
12ἐπέστρεψεν δὲ ὁ Μαρδοχαῖος εἰς τὴν αὐλήν, Αμαν δὲ ὑπέστρεψεν εἰς τὰ ἴδια λυπούμενος κατὰ κεφαλῆς.Then Mordecai returned to the courtyard, and Haman hurried back to his house, mourning and with his head covered.Then Mordecai returned to the king’s gate, but Haman hurried to his house, mourning and with his head covered.
13καὶ διηγήσατο Αμαν τὰ συμβεβηκότα αὐτῷ Ζωσαρα τῇ γυναικὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ τοῖς φίλοις, καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτὸν οἱ φίλοι καὶ ἡ γυνή Εἰ ἐκ γένους Ιουδαίων Μαρδοχαῖος, ἦρξαι ταπεινοῦσθαι ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ, πεσὼν πεσῇ· οὐ μὴ δύνῃ αὐτὸν ἀμύνασθαι, ὅτι θεὸς ζῶν μετ αὐτοῦ.Haman told his wife Zosara and his friends what had befallen him. His friends and his wife said to him, "If Mordecai is of the Jewish people, and you have begun to be humiliated before him, you will surely fall. You will not be able to defend yourself, because the living God is with him."When Haman told his wife Zeresh and all his friends everything that had happened to him, his advisers and his wife Zeresh said to him, "If Mordecai, before whom your downfall has begun, is of the Jewish people, you will not prevail against him, but will surely fall before him."
14ἔτι αὐτῶν λαλούντων παραγίνονται οἱ εὐνοῦχοι ἐπισπεύδοντες τὸν Αμαν ἐπὶ τὸν πότον, ὃν ἡτοίμασεν Εσθηρ.While they were still talking, the eunuchs arrived and hurriedly brought Haman to the banquet that Esther had prepared. While they were still talking with him, the king’s eunuchs arrived and hurried Haman off to the banquet that Esther had prepared.

Chapter 7

1Εἰσῆλθεν δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ Αμαν συμπιεῖν τῇ βασιλίσσῃ.So the king and Haman went in to drink with the queen.So the king and Haman went in to feast with Queen Esther.
2εἶπεν δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς Εσθηρ τῇ δευτέρᾳ ἡμέρᾳ ἐν τῷ πότῳ Τί ἐστιν, Εσθηρ βασίλισσα, καὶ τί τὸ αἴτημά σου καὶ τί τὸ ἀξίωμά σου; καὶ ἔστω σοι ἕως τοῦ ἡμίσους τῆς βασιλείας μου.And the second day, as they were drinking wine, the king said, "What is it, Queen Esther? What is your petition and what is your request? It shall be granted to you, even to half of my kingdom."On the second day, as they were drinking wine, the king again said to Esther, "What is your petition, Queen Esther? It shall be granted you. And what is your request? Even to the half of my kingdom, it shall be fulfilled."
3καὶ ἀποκριθεῖσα εἶπεν Εἰ εὗρον χάριν ἐνώπιον τοῦ βασιλέως, δοθήτω ἡ ψυχή μου τῷ αἰτήματί μου καὶ ὁ λαός μου τῷ ἀξιώματί μου·She answered and said, "If I have found favor with the king, let my life be granted me at my petition, and my people at my request.Then Queen Esther answered, "If I have won your favor, O king, and if it pleases the king, let my life be given me — that is my petition — and the lives of my people — that is my request.
4ἐπράθημεν γὰρ ἐγώ τε καὶ ὁ λαός μου εἰς ἀπώλειαν καὶ διαρπαγὴν καὶ δουλείαν, ἡμεῖς καὶ τὰ τέκνα ἡμῶν εἰς παῖδας καὶ παιδίσκας, καὶ παρήκουσα· οὐ γὰρ ἄξιος ὁ διάβολος τῆς αὐλῆς τοῦ βασιλέως.For we have been sold, I and my people, to be destroyed, plundered, and made slaves — we and our children — male and female slaves. This has come to my knowledge. Our antagonist brings shame on the king’s court."For we have been sold, I and my people, to be destroyed, to be killed, and to be annihilated. If we had been sold merely as slaves, men and women, I would have held my peace; but no enemy can compensate for this damage to the king."
5εἶπεν δὲ ὁ βασιλεύς Τίς οὗτος, ὅστις ἐτόλμησεν ποιῆσαι τὸ πρᾶγμα τοῦτο;Then the king said, "Who is the person that would dare to do this thing?"Then King Ahasuerus said to Queen Esther, "Who is he, and where is he, who has presumed to do this?"
6εἶπεν δὲ Εσθηρ Ἄνθρωπος ἐχθρὸς Αμαν ὁ πονηρὸς οὗτος. Αμαν δὲ ἐταράχθη ἀπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ τῆς βασιλίσσης.Esther said, "Our enemy is this evil man Haman!" At this, Haman was terrified in the presence of the king and queen.Esther said, "A foe and enemy, this wicked Haman!" Then Haman was terrified before the king and the queen.
7ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς ἐξανέστη ἐκ τοῦ συμποσίου εἰς τὸν κῆπον· ὁ δὲ Αμαν παρῃτεῖτο τὴν βασίλισσαν, ἑώρα γὰρ ἑαυτὸν ἐν κακοῖς ὄντα.The king rose from the banquet and went into the garden, and Haman began to beg for his life from the queen, for he saw that he was in serious trouble.The king rose from the feast in wrath and went into the palace garden, but Haman stayed to beg his life from Queen Esther, for he saw that the king had determined to destroy him.
8ἐπέστρεψεν δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐκ τοῦ κήπου, Αμαν δὲ ἐπιπεπτώκει ἐπὶ τὴν κλίνην ἀξιῶν τὴν βασίλισσαν· εἶπεν δὲ ὁ βασιλεύς Ὥστε καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα βιάζῃ ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ μου; Αμαν δὲ ἀκούσας διετράπη τῷ προσώπῳ.When the king returned from the garden, Haman had thrown himself on the couch, pleading with the queen. The king said, "Will he dare even assault my wife in my own house?" Haman, when he heard, turned away his face.When the king returned from the palace garden to the banquet hall, Haman had thrown himself on the couch where Esther was reclining; and the king said, "Will he even assault the queen in my presence, in my own house?" As the words left the mouth of the king, they covered Haman’s face.
9εἶπεν δὲ Βουγαθαν εἷς τῶν εὐνούχων πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα Ἰδοὺ καὶ ξύλον ἡτοίμασεν Αμαν Μαρδοχαίῳ τῷ λαλήσαντι περὶ τοῦ βασιλέως, καὶ ὤρθωται ἐν τοῖς Αμαν ξύλον πηχῶν πεντήκοντα. εἶπεν δὲ ὁ βασιλεύς Σταυρωθήτω ἐπ αὐτοῦ.Then Bugathan, one of the eunuchs, said to the king, "Look, Haman has even prepared a gallows for Mordecai, who gave information of concern to the king; it is standing at Haman’s house, a gallows fifty cubits high." So the king said, "Let Haman be hanged on that."Then Harbona, one of the eunuchs in attendance on the king, said, "Look, the very gallows that Haman has prepared for Mordecai, whose word saved the king, stands at Haman’s house, fifty cubits high." And the king said, "Hang him on that."
10καὶ ἐκρεμάσθη Αμαν ἐπὶ τοῦ ξύλου, ὃ ἡτοίμασεν Μαρδοχαίῳ. καὶ τότε ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐκόπασεν τοῦ θυμοῦ.So Haman was hanged on the gallows he had prepared for Mordecai. With that the anger of the king abated. So they hanged Haman on the gallows that he had prepared for Mordecai. Then the anger of the king abated.

Chapter 8

1Καὶ ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἀρταξέρξης ἐδωρήσατο Εσθηρ ὅσα ὑπῆρχεν Αμαν τῷ διαβόλῳ, καὶ Μαρδοχαῖος προσεκλήθη ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως, ὑπέδειξεν γὰρ Εσθηρ ὅτι ἐνοικείωται αὐτῇ.On that very day King Artaxerxes granted to Esther all the property of the persecutor Haman. Mordecai was summoned by the king, for Esther had told the king that he was related to her.On that day King Ahasuerus gave to Queen Esther the house of Haman, the enemy of the Jews; and Mordecai came before the king, for Esther had told what he was to her.
2ἔλαβεν δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς τὸν δακτύλιον, ὃν ἀφείλατο Αμαν, καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτὸν Μαρδοχαίῳ, καὶ κατέστησεν Εσθηρ Μαρδοχαῖον ἐπὶ πάντων τῶν Αμαν.The king took the ring that had been taken from Haman, and gave it to Mordecai; and Esther set Mordecai over everything that had been Haman’s.Then the king took off his signet ring, which he had taken from Haman, and gave it to Mordecai. So Esther set Mordecai over the house of Haman.
3καὶ προσθεῖσα ἐλάλησεν πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα καὶ προσέπεσεν πρὸς τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ καὶ ἠξίου ἀφελεῖν τὴν Αμαν κακίαν καὶ ὅσα ἐποίησεν τοῖς Ιουδαίοις.Then she spoke once again to the king and, falling at his feet, she asked him to avert all the evil that Haman had planned against the Jews.Then Esther spoke again to the king; she fell at his feet, weeping and pleading with him to avert the evil design of Haman the Agagite and the plot that he had devised against the Jews.
4ἐξέτεινεν δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς Εσθηρ τὴν ῥάβδον τὴν χρυσῆν, ἐξηγέρθη δὲ Εσθηρ παρεστηκέναι τῷ βασιλεῖ.The king extended his golden scepter to Esther, and she rose and stood before the king.The king held out the golden scepter to Esther,
5καὶ εἶπεν Εσθηρ Εἰ δοκεῖ σοι καὶ εὗρον χάριν, πεμφθήτω ἀποστραφῆναι τὰ γράμματα τὰ ἀπεσταλμένα ὑπὸ Αμαν τὰ γραφέντα ἀπολέσθαι τοὺς Ιουδαίους, οἵ εἰσιν ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ σου·Esther said, "If it pleases you, and if I have found favor, let an order be sent rescinding the letters that Haman wrote and sent to destroy the Jews in your kingdom.and Esther rose and stood before the king. She said, "If it pleases the king, and if I have won his favor, and if the thing seems right before the king, and I have his approval, let an order be written to revoke the letters devised by Haman son of Hammedatha the Agagite, which he wrote giving orders to destroy the Jews who are in all the provinces of the king.
6πῶς γὰρ δυνήσομαι ἰδεῖν τὴν κάκωσιν τοῦ λαοῦ μου καὶ πῶς δυνήσομαι σωθῆναι ἐν τῇ ἀπωλείᾳ τῆς πατρίδος μου;How can I look on the ruin of my people? How can I be safe if my ancestral nation is destroyed?"For how can I bear to see the calamity that is coming on my people? Or how can I bear to see the destruction of my kindred?"
7καὶ εἶπεν ὁ βασιλεὺς πρὸς Εσθηρ Εἰ πάντα τὰ ὑπάρχοντα Αμαν ἔδωκα καὶ ἐχαρισάμην σοι καὶ αὐτὸν ἐκρέμασα ἐπὶ ξύλου, ὅτι τὰς χεῖρας ἐπήνεγκε τοῖς Ιουδαίοις, τί ἔτι ἐπιζητεῖς;The king said to Esther, "Now that I have granted all of Haman’s property to you and have hanged him on a tree because he acted against the Jews, what else do you request?Then King Ahasuerus said to Queen Esther and to the Jew Mordecai, "See, I have given Esther the house of Haman, and they have hanged him on the gallows, because he plotted to lay hands on the Jews.
8γράψατε καὶ ὑμεῖς ἐκ τοῦ ὀνόματός μου ὡς δοκεῖ ὑμῖν καὶ σφραγίσατε τῷ δακτυλίῳ μου· ὅσα γὰρ γράφεται τοῦ βασιλέως ἐπιτάξαντος καὶ σφραγισθῇ τῷ δακτυλίῳ μου, οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτοῖς ἀντειπεῖν.Write in my name what you think best and seal it with my ring; for whatever is written at the king’s command and sealed with my ring cannot be contravened."You may write as you please with regard to the Jews, in the name of the king, and seal it with the king’s ring; for an edict written in the name of the king and sealed with the king’s ring cannot be revoked."
9ἐκλήθησαν δὲ οἱ γραμματεῖς ἐν τῷ πρώτῳ μηνί, ὅς ἐστι Νισα, τρίτῃ καὶ εἰκάδι τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἔτους, καὶ ἐγράφη τοῖς Ιουδαίοις ὅσα ἐνετείλατο τοῖς οἰκονόμοις καὶ τοῖς ἄρχουσιν τῶν σατραπῶν ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰνδικῆς ἕως τῆς Αἰθιοπίας, ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι ἑπτὰ σατραπείαις κατὰ χώραν καὶ χώραν, κατὰ τὴν ἑαυτῶν λέξιν.The secretaries were summoned on the twenty-third day of the first month, that is, Nisan, in the same year; and all that he commanded with respect to the Jews was given in writing to the administrators and governors of the provinces from India to Ethiopia, one hundred twenty-seven provinces, to each province in its own language.The king’s secretaries were summoned at that time, in the third month, which is the month of Sivan, on the twenty-third day; and an edict was written, according to all that Mordecai commanded, to the Jews and to the satraps and the governors and the officials of the provinces from India to Ethiopia, one hundred twenty-seven provinces, to every province in its own script and to every people in its own language, and also to the Jews in their script and their language.
10ἐγράφη δὲ διὰ τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ ἐσφραγίσθη τῷ δακτυλίῳ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐξαπέστειλαν τὰ γράμματα διὰ βιβλιαφόρων,The edict was written with the king’s authority and sealed with his ring, and sent out by couriers.He wrote letters in the name of King Ahasuerus, sealed them with the king’s ring, and sent them by mounted couriers riding on fast steeds bred from the royal herd.
11ὡς ἐπέταξεν αὐτοῖς χρῆσθαι τοῖς νόμοις αὐτῶν ἐν πάσῃ πόλει βοηθῆσαί τε αὑτοῖς καὶ χρῆσθαι τοῖς ἀντιδίκοις αὐτῶν καὶ τοῖς ἀντικειμένοις αὐτῶν ὡς βούλονται,He ordered the Jews in every city to observe their own laws, to defend themselves, and to act as they wished against their opponents and enemiesBy these letters the king allowed the Jews who were in every city to assemble and defend their lives, to destroy, to kill, and to annihilate any armed force of any people or province that might attack them, with their children and women, and to plunder their goods
12ἐν ἡμέρᾳ μιᾷ ἐν πάσῃ τῇ βασιλείᾳ Ἀρταξέρξου, τῇ τρισκαιδεκάτῃ τοῦ δωδεκάτου μηνός, ὅς ἐστιν Αδαρ.on a certain day, the thirteenth of the twelfth month, which is Adar, throughout all the kingdom of Artaxerxes. on a single day throughout all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar.

Chapter E

1Ὧν ἐστιν ἀντίγραφον τῆς ἐπιστολῆς τὰ ὑπογεγραμμένα· Βασιλεὺς μέγας Ἀρταξέρξης τοῖς ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰνδικῆς ἕως τῆς Αἰθιοπίας ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι ἑπτὰ σατραπείαις χωρῶν ἄρχουσι καὶ τοῖς τὰ ἡμέτερα φρονοῦσι χαίρειν.The following is a copy of this letter: "The Great King, Artaxerxes, to the governors of the provinces from India to Ethiopia, one hundred twenty-seven provinces, and to those who are loyal to our government, greetings. 
2πολλοὶ τῇ πλείστῃ τῶν εὐεργετούντων χρηστότητι πυκνότερον τιμώμενοι μεῖζον ἐφρόνησαν "Many people, the more they are honored with the most generous kindness of their benefactors, the more proud do they become, 
3καὶ οὐ μόνον τοὺς ὑποτεταγμένους ἡμῖν ζητοῦσι κακοποιεῖν, τόν τε κόρον οὐ δυνάμενοι φέρειν καὶ τοῖς ἑαυτῶν εὐεργέταις ἐπιχειροῦσι μηχανᾶσθαι·and not only seek to injure our subjects, but in their inability to stand prosperity, they even undertake to scheme against their own benefactors. 
4καὶ τὴν εὐχαριστίαν οὐ μόνον ἐκ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἀνταναιροῦντες, ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῖς τῶν ἀπειραγάθων κόμποις ἐπαρθέντες τοῦ τὰ πάντα κατοπτεύοντος ἀεὶ θεοῦ μισοπόνηρον ὑπολαμβάνουσιν ἐκφεύξεσθαι δίκην.They not only take away thankfulness from others, but, carried away by the boasts of those who know nothing of goodness, they even assume that they will escape the evil-hating justice of God, who always sees everything. 
5πολλάκις δὲ καὶ πολλοὺς τῶν ἐπ ἐξουσίαις τεταγμένων τῶν πιστευθέντων χειρίζειν φίλων τὰ πράγματα παραμυθία μεταιτίους αἱμάτων ἀθῴων καταστήσασα περιέβαλε συμφοραῖς ἀνηκέστοιςAnd often many of those who are set in places of authority have been made in part responsible for the shedding of innocent blood, and have been involved in irremediable calamities, by the persuasion of friends who have been entrusted with the administration of public affairs, 
6τῷ τῆς κακοηθείας ψευδεῖ παραλογισμῷ παραλογισαμένων τὴν τῶν ἐπικρατούντων ἀκέραιον εὐγνωμοσύνην.when these persons by the false trickery of their evil natures beguile the sincere goodwill of their sovereigns. 
7σκοπεῖν δὲ ἔξεστιν, οὐ τοσοῦτον ἐκ τῶν παλαιοτέρων ὧν παρεδώκαμεν ἱστοριῶν, ὅσα ἐστὶν παρὰ πόδας ὑμᾶς ἐκζητοῦντας ἀνοσίως συντετελεσμένα τῇ τῶν ἀνάξια δυναστευόντων λοιμότητι,"What has been wickedly accomplished through the pestilent behavior of those who exercise authority unworthily can be seen, not so much from the more ancient records that we hand on, as from investigation of matters close at hand. 
8καὶ προσέχειν εἰς τὰ μετὰ ταῦτα εἰς τὸ τὴν βασιλείαν ἀτάραχον τοῖς πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις μετ εἰρήνης παρεξόμεθαIn the future we will take care to render our kingdom quiet and peaceable for all, 
9χρώμενοι ταῖς μεταβολαῖς, τὰ δὲ ὑπὸ τὴν ὄψιν ἐρχόμενα διακρίνοντες ἀεὶ μετ ἐπιεικεστέρας ἀπαντήσεως.by changing our methods and always judging what comes before our eyes with more equitable consideration. 
10ὡς γὰρ Αμαν Αμαδαθου Μακεδών, ταῖς ἀληθείαις ἀλλότριος τοῦ τῶν Περσῶν αἵματος καὶ πολὺ διεστηκὼς τῆς ἡμετέρας χρηστότητος, ἐπιξενωθεὶς ἡμῖνFor Haman son of Hammedatha, a Macedonian (really an alien to the Persian blood, and quite devoid of our kindliness), having become our guest, 
11ἔτυχεν ἧς ἔχομεν πρὸς πᾶν ἔθνος φιλανθρωπίας ἐπὶ τοσοῦτον ὥστε ἀναγορεύεσθαι ἡμῶν πατέρα καὶ προσκυνούμενον ὑπὸ πάντων τὸ δεύτερον τοῦ βασιλικοῦ θρόνου πρόσωπον διατελεῖν,enjoyed so fully the goodwill that we have for every nation that he was called our father and was continually bowed down to by all as the person second to the royal throne. 
12οὐκ ἐνέγκας δὲ τὴν ὑπερηφανίαν ἐπετήδευσεν τῆς ἀρχῆς στερῆσαι ἡμᾶς καὶ τοῦ πνεύματοςBut, unable to restrain his arrogance, he undertook to deprive us of our kingdom and our life, 
13τόν τε ἡμέτερον σωτῆρα καὶ διὰ παντὸς εὐεργέτην Μαρδοχαῖον καὶ τὴν ἄμεμπτον τῆς βασιλείας κοινωνὸν Εσθηρ σὺν παντὶ τῷ τούτων ἔθνει πολυπλόκοις μεθόδων παραλογισμοῖς αἰτησάμενος εἰς ἀπώλειαν·and with intricate craft and deceit asked for the destruction of Mordecai, our savior and perpetual benefactor, and of Esther, the blameless partner of our kingdom, together with their whole nation. 
14διὰ γὰρ τῶν τρόπων τούτων ᾠήθη λαβὼν ἡμᾶς ἐρήμους τὴν τῶν Περσῶν ἐπικράτησιν εἰς τοὺς Μακεδόνας μετάξαι.He thought that by these methods he would catch us undefended and would transfer the kingdom of the Persians to the Macedonians. 
15ἡμεῖς δὲ τοὺς ὑπὸ τοῦ τρισαλιτηρίου παραδεδομένους εἰς ἀφανισμὸν Ιουδαίους εὑρίσκομεν οὐ κακούργους ὄντας, δικαιοτάτοις δὲ πολιτευομένους νόμοις,"But we find that the Jews, who were consigned to annihilation by this thrice-accursed man, are not evildoers, but are governed by most righteous laws 
16ὄντας δὲ υἱοὺς τοῦ ὑψίστου μεγίστου ζῶντος θεοῦ τοῦ κατευθύνοντος ἡμῖν τε καὶ τοῖς προγόνοις ἡμῶν τὴν βασιλείαν ἐν τῇ καλλίστῃ διαθέσει. and are children of the living God, most high, most mighty, who has directed the kingdom both for us and for our ancestors in the most excellent order. 
17καλῶς οὖν ποιήσετε μὴ προσχρησάμενοι τοῖς ὑπὸ Αμαν Αμαδαθου ἀποσταλεῖσι γράμμασιν"You will therefore do well not to put in execution the letters sent by Haman son of Hammedatha, 
18διὰ τὸ αὐτὸν τὸν ταῦτα ἐξεργασάμενον πρὸς ταῖς Σούσων πύλαις ἐσταυρῶσθαι σὺν τῇ πανοικίᾳ, τὴν καταξίαν τοῦ τὰ πάντα ἐπικρατοῦντος θεοῦ διὰ τάχους ἀποδόντος αὐτῷ κρίσιν, since he, the one who did these things, has been hanged at the gate of Susa with all his household — for God, who rules over all things, has speedily inflicted on him the punishment that he deserved. 
19τὸ δὲ ἀντίγραφον τῆς ἐπιστολῆς ταύτης ἐκθέντες ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ μετὰ παρρησίας ἐᾶν τοὺς Ιουδαίους χρῆσθαι τοῖς ἑαυτῶν νομίμοις"Therefore post a copy of this letter publicly in every place, and permit the Jews to live under their own laws. 
20καὶ συνεπισχύειν αὐτοῖς ὅπως τοὺς ἐν καιρῷ θλίψεως ἐπιθεμένους αὐτοῖς ἀμύνωνται τῇ τρισκαιδεκάτῃ τοῦ δωδεκάτου μηνὸς Αδαρ τῇ αὐτῇ ἡμέρᾳ·And give them reinforcements, so that on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, Adar, on that very day, they may defend themselves against those who attack them at the time of oppression. 
21ταύτην γὰρ ὁ πάντα δυναστεύων θεὸς ἀντ ὀλεθρίας τοῦ ἐκλεκτοῦ γένους ἐποίησεν αὐτοῖς εὐφροσύνην.For God, who rules over all things, has made this day to be a joy for his chosen people instead of a day of destruction for them. 
22καὶ ὑμεῖς οὖν ἐν ταῖς ἐπωνύμοις ὑμῶν ἑορταῖς ἐπίσημον ἡμέραν μετὰ πάσης εὐωχίας ἄγετε,"Therefore you shall observe this with all good cheer as a notable day among your commemorative festivals, 
23ὅπως καὶ νῦν καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα σωτηρία ᾖ ἡμῖν καὶ τοῖς εὐνοοῦσιν Πέρσαις, τοῖς δὲ ἡμῖν ἐπιβουλεύουσιν μνημόσυνον τῆς ἀπωλείας.so that both now and hereafter it may represent deliverance for you and the loyal Persians, but that it may be a reminder of destruction for those who plot against us. 
24πᾶσα δὲ πόλις ἢ χώρα τὸ σύνολον, ἥτις κατὰ ταῦτα μὴ ποιήσῃ, δόρατι καὶ πυρὶ καταναλωθήσεται μετ ὀργῆς· οὐ μόνον ἀνθρώποις ἄβατος, ἀλλὰ καὶ θηρίοις καὶ πετεινοῖς εἰς τὸν ἅπαντα χρόνον ἔχθιστος κατασταθήσεται."Every city and country, without exception, that does not act accordingly shall be destroyed in wrath with spear and fire. It shall be made not only impassable for human beings, but also most hateful to wild animals and birds for all time.  

Chapter 8

13τὰ δὲ ἀντίγραφα ἐκτιθέσθωσαν ὀφθαλμοφανῶς ἐν πάσῃ τῇ βασιλείᾳ, ἑτοίμους τε εἶναι πάντας τοὺς Ιουδαίους εἰς ταύτην τὴν ἡμέραν πολεμῆσαι αὐτῶν τοὺς ὑπεναντίους."Let copies of the decree be posted conspicuously in all the kingdom, and let all the Jews be ready on that day to fight against their enemies."A copy of the writ was to be issued as a decree in every province and published to all peoples, and the Jews were to be ready on that day to take revenge on their enemies.
14Οἱ μὲν οὖν ἱππεῖς ἐξῆλθον σπεύδοντες τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως λεγόμενα ἐπιτελεῖν· ἐξετέθη δὲ τὸ πρόσταγμα καὶ ἐν Σούσοις.So the messengers on horseback set out with all speed to perform what the king had commanded; and the decree was published also in Susa.So the couriers, mounted on their swift royal steeds, hurried out, urged by the king’s command. The decree was issued in the citadel of Susa.
15ὁ δὲ Μαρδοχαῖος ἐξῆλθεν ἐστολισμένος τὴν βασιλικὴν στολὴν καὶ στέφανον ἔχων χρυσοῦν καὶ διάδημα βύσσινον πορφυροῦν· ἰδόντες δὲ οἱ ἐν Σούσοις ἐχάρησαν.Mordecai went out dressed in the royal robe and wearing a gold crown and a turban of purple linen. The people in Susa rejoiced on seeing him.Then Mordecai went out from the presence of the king, wearing royal robes of blue and white, with a great golden crown and a mantle of fine linen and purple, while the city of Susa shouted and rejoiced.
16τοῖς δὲ Ιουδαίοις ἐγένετο φῶς καὶ εὐφροσύνη·And the Jews had light and gladnessFor the Jews there was light and gladness, joy and honor.
17κατὰ πόλιν καὶ χώραν, οὗ ἂν ἐξετέθη τὸ πρόσταγμα, οὗ ἂν ἐξετέθη τὸ ἔκθεμα, χαρὰ καὶ εὐφροσύνη τοῖς Ιουδαίοις, κώθων καὶ εὐφροσύνη, καὶ πολλοὶ τῶν ἐθνῶν περιετέμοντο καὶ ιουδάιζον διὰ τὸν φόβον τῶν Ιουδαίων.in every city and province wherever the decree was published; wherever the proclamation was made, the Jews had joy and gladness, a banquet and a holiday. And many of the Gentiles were circumcised and became Jews out of fear of the Jews. In every province and in every city, wherever the king’s command and his edict came, there was gladness and joy among the Jews, a festival and a holiday. Furthermore, many of the peoples of the country professed to be Jews, because the fear of the Jews had fallen upon them.

Chapter 9

1Ἐν γὰρ τῷ δωδεκάτῳ μηνὶ τρισκαιδεκάτῃ τοῦ μηνός, ὅς ἐστιν Αδαρ, παρῆν τὰ γράμματα τὰ γραφέντα ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως.Now on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is Adar, the decree written by the king arrived.Now in the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar, on the thirteenth day, when the king’s command and edict were about to be executed, on the very day when the enemies of the Jews hoped to gain power over them, but which had been changed to a day when the Jews would gain power over their foes,
2ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἀπώλοντο οἱ ἀντικείμενοι τοῖς Ιουδαίοις· οὐδεὶς γὰρ ἀντέστη φοβούμενος αὐτούς.On that same day the enemies of the Jews perished; no one resisted, because they feared them.the Jews gathered in their cities throughout all the provinces of King Ahasuerus to lay hands on those who had sought their ruin; and no one could withstand them, because the fear of them had fallen upon all peoples.
3οἱ γὰρ ἄρχοντες τῶν σατραπῶν καὶ οἱ τύραννοι καὶ οἱ βασιλικοὶ γραμματεῖς ἐτίμων τοὺς Ιουδαίους· ὁ γὰρ φόβος Μαρδοχαίου ἐνέκειτο αὐτοῖς.The chief provincial governors, the princes, and the royal secretaries were paying honor to the Jews, because fear of Mordecai weighed upon them.All the officials of the provinces, the satraps and the governors, and the royal officials were supporting the Jews, because the fear of Mordecai had fallen upon them.
4προσέπεσεν γὰρ τὸ πρόσταγμα τοῦ βασιλέως ὀνομασθῆναι ἐν πάσῃ τῇ βασιλείᾳ.The king’s decree required that Mordecai’s name be held in honor throughout the kingdom.For Mordecai was powerful in the king’s house, and his fame spread throughout all the provinces as the man Mordecai grew more and more powerful.
5  So the Jews struck down all their enemies with the sword, slaughtering, and destroying them, and did as they pleased to those who hated them.
6καὶ ἐν Σούσοις τῇ πόλει ἀπέκτειναν οἱ Ιουδαῖοι ἄνδρας πεντακοσίουςNow in the city of Susa the Jews killed five hundred people,In the citadel of Susa the Jews killed and destroyed five hundred people.
7τόν τε Φαρσαννεσταιν καὶ Δελφων καὶ Φασγαincluding Pharsannestain, Delphon, Phasga,They killed Parshandatha, Dalphon, Aspatha,
8καὶ Φαρδαθα καὶ Βαρεα καὶ ΣαρβαχαPharadatha, Barea, Sarbacha,Poratha, Adalia, Aridatha,
9καὶ Μαρμασιμα καὶ Αρουφαιον καὶ Αρσαιον καὶ Ζαβουθαιθαν,Marmasima, Aruphaeus, Arsaeus, Zabutheus,Parmashta, Arisai, Aridai, Vaizatha,
10τοὺς δέκα υἱοὺς Αμαν Αμαδαθου Βουγαίου τοῦ ἐχθροῦ τῶν Ιουδαίων, καὶ διήρπασαν. ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἡμέρᾳthe ten sons of Haman son of Hammedatha, the Bougean, the enemy of the Jews — and they indulged themselves in plunder.the ten sons of Haman son of Hammedatha, the enemy of the Jews; but they did not touch the plunder.
11ἐπεδόθη ὁ ἀριθμὸς τῷ βασιλεῖ τῶν ἀπολωλότων ἐν Σούσοις.That very day the number of those killed in Susa was reported to the king.That very day the number of those killed in the citadel of Susa was reported to the king.
12εἶπεν δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς πρὸς Εσθηρ Ἀπώλεσαν οἱ Ιουδαῖοι ἐν Σούσοις τῇ πόλει ἄνδρας πεντακοσίους· ἐν δὲ τῇ περιχώρῳ πῶς οἴει ἐχρήσαντο; τί οὖν ἀξιοῖς ἔτι καὶ ἔσται σοι;The king said to Esther, "In Susa, the capital, the Jews have destroyed five hundred people. What do you suppose they have done in the surrounding countryside? Whatever more you ask will be done for you."The king said to Queen Esther, "In the citadel of Susa the Jews have killed five hundred people and also the ten sons of Haman. What have they done in the rest of the king’s provinces? Now what is your petition? It shall be granted you. And what further is your request? It shall be fulfilled."
13καὶ εἶπεν Εσθηρ τῷ βασιλεῖ Δοθήτω τοῖς Ιουδαίοις χρῆσθαι ὡσαύτως τὴν αὔριον ὥστε τοὺς δέκα υἱοὺς κρεμάσαι Αμαν.And Esther said to the king, "Let the Jews be allowed to do the same tomorrow. Also, hang up the bodies of Haman’s ten sons."Esther said, "If it pleases the king, let the Jews who are in Susa be allowed tomorrow also to do according to this day’s edict, and let the ten sons of Haman be hanged on the gallows."
14καὶ ἐπέτρεψεν οὕτως γενέσθαι καὶ ἐξέθηκε τοῖς Ιουδαίοις τῆς πόλεως τὰ σώματα τῶν υἱῶν Αμαν κρεμάσαι.So he permitted this to be done, and handed over to the Jews of the city the bodies of Haman’s sons to hang up.So the king commanded this to be done; a decree was issued in Susa, and the ten sons of Haman were hanged.
15καὶ συνήχθησαν οἱ Ιουδαῖοι ἐν Σούσοις τῇ τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτῃ τοῦ Αδαρ καὶ ἀπέκτειναν ἄνδρας τριακοσίους καὶ οὐδὲν διήρπασαν.The Jews who were in Susa gathered on the fourteenth and killed three hundred people, but took no plunder.The Jews who were in Susa gathered also on the fourteenth day of the month of Adar and they killed three hundred persons in Susa; but they did not touch the plunder.
16οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ τῶν Ιουδαίων οἱ ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ συνήχθησαν καὶ ἑαυτοῖς ἐβοήθουν καὶ ἀνεπαύσαντο ἀπὸ τῶν πολεμίων· ἀπώλεσαν γὰρ αὐτῶν μυρίους πεντακισχιλίους τῇ τρισκαιδεκάτῃ τοῦ Αδαρ καὶ οὐδὲν διήρπασαν.Now the other Jews in the kingdom gathered to defend themselves, and got relief from their enemies. They destroyed fifteen thousand of them, but did not engage in plunder.Now the other Jews who were in the king’s provinces also gathered to defend their lives, and gained relief from their enemies, and killed seventy-five thousand of those who hated them; but they laid no hands on the plunder.
17καὶ ἀνεπαύσαντο τῇ τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτῃ τοῦ αὐτοῦ μηνὸς καὶ ἦγον αὐτὴν ἡμέραν ἀναπαύσεως μετὰ χαρᾶς καὶ εὐφροσύνης.On the fourteenth day they rested and made that same day a day of rest, celebrating it with joy and gladness.This was on the thirteenth day of the month of Adar, and on the fourteenth day they rested and made that a day of feasting and gladness.
18οἱ δὲ Ιουδαῖοι οἱ ἐν Σούσοις τῇ πόλει συνήχθησαν καὶ τῇ τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτῃ καὶ οὐκ ἀνεπαύσαντο· ἦγον δὲ καὶ τὴν πεντεκαιδεκάτην μετὰ χαρᾶς καὶ εὐφροσύνης.The Jews who were in Susa, the capital, came together also on the fourteenth, but did not rest. They celebrated the fifteenth with joy and gladness.But the Jews who were in Susa gathered on the thirteenth day and on the fourteenth, and rested on the fifteenth day, making that a day of feasting and gladness.
19διὰ τοῦτο οὖν οἱ Ιουδαῖοι οἱ διεσπαρμένοι ἐν πάσῃ χώρᾳ τῇ ἔξω ἄγουσιν τὴν τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτην τοῦ Αδαρ ἡμέραν ἀγαθὴν μετ εὐφροσύνης ἀποστέλλοντες μερίδας ἕκαστος τῷ πλησίον, οἱ δὲ κατοικοῦντες ἐν ταῖς μητροπόλεσιν καὶ τὴν πεντεκαιδεκάτην τοῦ Αδαρ ἡμέραν εὐφροσύνην ἀγαθὴν ἄγουσιν ἐξαποστέλλοντες μερίδας τοῖς πλησίον.On this account then the Jews who are scattered around the country outside Susa keep the fourteenth of Adar as a joyful holiday, and send presents of food to one another, while those who live in the large cities keep the fifteenth day of Adar as their joyful holiday, also sending presents to one another.Therefore the Jews of the villages, who live in the open towns, hold the fourteenth day of the month of Adar as a day for gladness and feasting, a holiday on which they send gifts of food to one another.
20Ἔγραψεν δὲ Μαρδοχαῖος τοὺς λόγους τούτους εἰς βιβλίον καὶ ἐξαπέστειλεν τοῖς Ιουδαίοις, ὅσοι ἦσαν ἐν τῇ Ἀρταξέρξου βασιλείᾳ, τοῖς ἐγγὺς καὶ τοῖς μακράν,Mordecai recorded these things in a book, and sent it to the Jews in the kingdom of Artaxerxes both near and far,Mordecai recorded these things, and sent letters to all the Jews who were in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, both near and far,
21στῆσαι τὰς ἡμέρας ταύτας ἀγαθὰς ἄγειν τε τὴν τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτην καὶ τὴν πεντεκαιδεκάτην τοῦ Αδαρtelling them that they should keep the fourteenth and fifteenth days of Adar,enjoining them that they should keep the fourteenth day of the month Adar and also the fifteenth day of the same month, year by year,
22ἐν γὰρ ταύταις ταῖς ἡμέραις ἀνεπαύσαντο οἱ Ιουδαῖοι ἀπὸ τῶν ἐχθρῶν αὐτῶν – καὶ τὸν μῆνα, ἐν ᾧ ἐστράφη αὐτοῖς [ὃς ἦν Αδαρ] ἀπὸ πένθους εἰς χαρὰν καὶ ἀπὸ ὀδύνης εἰς ἀγαθὴν ἡμέραν, ἄγειν ὅλον ἀγαθὰς ἡμέρας γάμων καὶ εὐφροσύνης ἐξαποστέλλοντας μερίδας τοῖς φίλοις καὶ τοῖς πτωχοῖς.for on these days the Jews got relief from their enemies. The whole month (namely, Adar), in which their condition had been changed from sorrow into gladness and from a time of distress to a holiday, was to be celebrated as a time for feasting and gladness and for sending presents of food to their friends and to the poor.as the days on which the Jews gained relief from their enemies, and as the month that had been turned for them from sorrow into gladness and from mourning into a holiday; that they should make them days of feasting and gladness, days for sending gifts of food to one another and presents to the poor.
23καὶ προσεδέξαντο οἱ Ιουδαῖοι, καθὼς ἔγραψεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Μαρδοχαῖος,So the Jews accepted what Mordecai had written to themSo the Jews adopted as a custom what they had begun to do, as Mordecai had written to them.
24πῶς Αμαν Αμαδαθου ὁ Μακεδὼν ἐπολέμει αὐτούς, καθὼς ἔθετο ψήφισμα καὶ κλῆρον ἀφανίσαι αὐτούς,— how Haman son of Hammedatha, the Macedonian, fought against them, how he made a decree and cast lots to destroy them,Haman son of Hammedatha the Agagite, the enemy of all the Jews, had plotted against the Jews to destroy them, and had cast Pur — that is "the lot" — to crush and destroy them;
25καὶ ὡς εἰσῆλθεν πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα λέγων κρεμάσαι τὸν Μαρδοχαῖον· ὅσα δὲ ἐπεχείρησεν ἐπάξαι ἐπὶ τοὺς Ιουδαίους κακά, ἐπ αὐτὸν ἐγένοντο, καὶ ἐκρεμάσθη αὐτὸς καὶ τὰ τέκνα αὐτοῦ.and how he went in to the king, telling him to hang Mordecai; but the wicked plot he had devised against the Jews came back upon himself, and he and his sons were hanged.but when Esther came before the king, he gave orders in writing that the wicked plot that he had devised against the Jews should come upon his own head, and that he and his sons should be hanged on the gallows.
26διὰ τοῦτο ἐπεκλήθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι αὗται Φρουραι διὰ τοὺς κλήρους, ὅτι τῇ διαλέκτῳ αὐτῶν καλοῦνται Φρουραι, διὰ τοὺς λόγους τῆς ἐπιστολῆς ταύτης καὶ ὅσα πεπόνθασιν διὰ ταῦτα καὶ ὅσα αὐτοῖς ἐγένετο·Therefore these days were called "Purim," because of the lots (for in their language this is the word that means "lots"). And so, because of what was written in this letter, and because of what they had experienced in this affair and what had befallen them, Mordecai established this festival,Therefore these days are called Purim, from the word Pur. Thus because of all that was written in this letter, and of what they had faced in this matter, and of what had happened to them,
27καὶ ἔστησεν καὶ προσεδέχοντο οἱ Ιουδαῖοι ἐφ ἑαυτοῖς καὶ ἐπὶ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτῶν καὶ ἐπὶ τοῖς προστεθειμένοις ἐπ αὐτῶν οὐδὲ μὴν ἄλλως χρήσονται· αἱ δὲ ἡμέραι αὗται μνημόσυνον ἐπιτελούμενον κατὰ γενεὰν καὶ γενεὰν καὶ πόλιν καὶ πατριὰν καὶ χώραν·and the Jews took upon themselves, upon their descendants, and upon all who would join them, to observe it without fail. These days of Purim should be a memorial and kept from generation to generation, in every city, family, and country.the Jews established and accepted as a custom for themselves and their descendants and all who joined them, that without fail they would continue to observe these two days every year, as it was written and at the time appointed.
28αἱ δὲ ἡμέραι αὗται τῶν Φρουραι ἀχθήσονται εἰς τὸν ἅπαντα χρόνον, καὶ τὸ μνημόσυνον αὐτῶν οὐ μὴ ἐκλίπῃ ἐκ τῶν γενεῶν.These days of Purim were to be observed for all time, and the commemoration of them was never to cease among their descendants.These days should be remembered and kept throughout every generation, in every family, province, and city; and these days of Purim should never fall into disuse among the Jews, nor should the commemoration of these days cease among their descendants.
29καὶ ἔγραψεν Εσθηρ ἡ βασίλισσα θυγάτηρ Αμιναδαβ καὶ Μαρδοχαῖος ὁ Ιουδαῖος ὅσα ἐποίησαν τό τε στερέωμα τῆς ἐπιστολῆς τῶν Φρουραι.Then Queen Esther daughter of Aminadab along with Mordecai the Jew wrote down what they had done, and gave full authority to the letter about Purim.Queen Esther daughter of Abihail, along with the Jew Mordecai, gave full written authority, confirming this second letter about Purim.
30  Letters were sent wishing peace and security to all the Jews, to the one hundred twenty-seven provinces of the kingdom of Ahasuerus,
31καὶ Μαρδοχαῖος καὶ Εσθηρ ἡ βασίλισσα ἔστησαν ἑαυτοῖς καθ ἑαυτῶν καὶ τότε στήσαντες κατὰ τῆς ὑγιείας αὐτῶν καὶ τὴν βουλὴν αὐτῶν·And Mordecai and Queen Esther established this decision on their own responsibility, pledging their own well-being to the plan.and giving orders that these days of Purim should be observed at their appointed seasons, as the Jew Mordecai and Queen Esther enjoined on the Jews, just as they had laid down for themselves and for their descendants regulations concerning their fasts and their lamentations.
32καὶ Εσθηρ λόγῳ ἔστησεν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, καὶ ἐγράφη εἰς μνημόσυνον.Esther established it by a decree forever, and it was written for a memorial. The command of Queen Esther fixed these practices of Purim, and it was recorded in writing.

Chapter 10

1Ἔγραψεν δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς τέλη ἐπὶ τὴν βασιλείαν τῆς τε γῆς καὶ τῆς θαλάσσης.The king levied a tax upon his kingdom both by land and sea.King Ahasuerus laid tribute on the land and on the islands of the sea.
2καὶ τὴν ἰσχὺν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀνδραγαθίαν πλοῦτόν τε καὶ δόξαν τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ, ἰδοὺ γέγραπται ἐν βιβλίῳ βασιλέων Περσῶν καὶ Μήδων εἰς μνημόσυνον.And as for his power and bravery, and the wealth and glory of his kingdom, they were recorded in the annals of the kings of the Persians and the Medes.All the acts of his power and might, and the full account of the high honor of Mordecai, to which the king advanced him, are they not written in the annals of the kings of Media and Persia?
3ὁ δὲ Μαρδοχαῖος διεδέχετο τὸν βασιλέα Ἀρταξέρξην καὶ μέγας ἦν ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ καὶ δεδοξασμένος ὑπὸ τῶν Ιουδαίων· καὶ φιλούμενος διηγεῖτο τὴν ἀγωγὴν παντὶ τῷ ἔθνει αὐτοῦ.Mordecai acted with authority on behalf of King Artaxerxes and was great in the kingdom, as well as honored by the Jews. His way of life was such as to make him beloved to his whole nation. For Mordecai the Jew was next in rank to King Ahasuerus, and he was powerful among the Jews and popular with his many kindred, for he sought the good of his people and interceded for the welfare of all his descendants.

Chapter F

1Καὶ εἶπεν Μαρδοχαῖος Παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐγένετο ταῦτα·And Mordecai said, "These things have come from God; 
2ἐμνήσθην γὰρ περὶ τοῦ ἐνυπνίου, οὗ εἶδον περὶ τῶν λόγων τούτων· οὐδὲ γὰρ παρῆλθεν ἀπ αὐτῶν λόγος.for I remember the dream that I had concerning these matters, and none of them has failed to be fulfilled. 
3ἡ μικρὰ πηγή, ἣ ἐγένετο ποταμὸς καὶ ἦν φῶς καὶ ἥλιος καὶ ὕδωρ πολύ· Εσθηρ ἐστὶν ὁ ποταμός, ἣν ἐγάμησεν ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ ἐποίησεν βασίλισσαν.There was the little spring that became a river, and there was light and sun and abundant water — the river is Esther, whom the king married and made queen. 
4οἱ δὲ δύο δράκοντες ἐγώ εἰμι καὶ Αμαν.The two dragons are Haman and myself. 
5τὰ δὲ ἔθνη τὰ ἐπισυναχθέντα ἀπολέσαι τὸ ὄνομα τῶν Ιουδαίων.The nations are those that gathered to destroy the name of the Jews. 
6τὸ δὲ ἔθνος τὸ ἐμόν, οὗτός ἐστιν Ισραηλ οἱ βοήσαντες πρὸς τὸν θεὸν καὶ σωθέντες· καὶ ἔσωσεν κύριος τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐρρύσατο κύριος ἡμᾶς ἐκ πάντων τῶν κακῶν τούτων, καὶ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὰ σημεῖα καὶ τὰ τέρατα τὰ μεγάλα, ἃ οὐ γέγονεν ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν.And my nation, this is Israel, who cried out to God and was saved. The Lord has saved his people; the Lord has rescued us from all these evils; God has done great signs and wonders, wonders that have never happened among the nations. 
7διὰ τοῦτο ἐποίησεν κλήρους δύο, ἕνα τῷ λαῷ τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἕνα πᾶσι τοῖς ἔθνεσιν·For this purpose he made two lots, one for the people of God and one for all the nations, 
8καὶ ἦλθον οἱ δύο κλῆροι οὗτοι εἰς ὥραν καὶ καιρὸν καὶ εἰς ἡμέραν κρίσεως ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς ἔθνεσιν,and these two lots came to the hour and moment and day of decision before God and among all the nations. 
9καὶ ἐμνήσθη ὁ θεὸς τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐδικαίωσεν τὴν κληρονομίαν αὐτοῦ.And God remembered his people and vindicated his inheritance. 
10καὶ ἔσονται αὐτοῖς αἱ ἡμέραι αὗται ἐν μηνὶ Αδαρ τῇ τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτῃ καὶ τῇ πεντεκαιδεκάτῃ τοῦ αὐτοῦ μηνὸς μετὰ συναγωγῆς καὶ χαρᾶς καὶ εὐφροσύνης ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ κατὰ γενεὰς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ἐν τῷ λαῷ αὐτοῦ Ισραηλ.So they will observe these days in the month of Adar, on the fourteenth and fifteenth of that month, with an assembly and joy and gladness before God, from generation to generation forever among his people Israel." 
11Ἔτους τετάρτου βασιλεύοντος Πτολεμαίου καὶ Κλεοπάτρας εἰσήνεγκεν Δωσίθεος, ὃς ἔφη εἶναι ἱερεὺς καὶ Λευίτης, καὶ Πτολεμαῖος ὁ υἱὸς αὐτοῦ τὴν προκειμένην ἐπιστολὴν τῶν Φρουραι, ἣν ἔφασαν εἶναι καὶ ἑρμηνευκέναι Λυσίμαχον Πτολεμαίου τῶν ἐν Ιερουσαλημ.In the fourth year of the reign of Ptolemy and Cleopatra, Dositheus, who said that he was a priest and a Levite, and his son Ptolemy brought to Egypt the preceding Letter about Purim, which they said was authentic and had been translated by Lysimachus son of Ptolemy, one of the residents of Jerusalem.  

Persian Empire in the 6th century BC

Persian Empire (550 to 330 BC) at its peak

(click on the map to enlarge)