1 (Ethiopic Apocalypse of) Enoch

I thought I would make this text available, which belongs to the Jewish pseudepigrapha, because of its importance for understanding the New Testament milieu, especially certain expressions such as "son of man" by which Jesus seems to refer to himself.

Let us first recall that Enoch, in Hebrew חֲנוֹךְ (ḥănōkh), is a biblical patriarch who is said to have lived 365 years. He is the son of Jared, father of Methuselah, great-grandfather of Noah (Genesis 5:18-23).

A collection of pseudepigraphal texts, called the Book of Enoch, claims to record revelations received by Enoch and passed on by his son Methuselah. One of these pseudepigraphal texts, 1 Enoch (also called the Ethiopic Enoch), was brought from the empire of Ethiopia to England in 1773 during a voyage by the explorer James Bruce. Another pseudepigrapha, 2 Enoch (also called the Book of Secrets of Enoch or Slavic Enoch because it owes its survival in Slavic countries) was discovered in the 19th century in Belgrade. It is said to come from an original text written in Greek, which circulated in Eastern Europe until the 13th century. 3 Enoch, written in Hebrew, also called the Book of Palaces, in Hebrew ספר היכלות (sefer hekhalot), is a mystical text of an apocalyptic and angelological nature of ancient Judaism that is dated to the 4th or 5th century CE and used by the medieval Kabbalah.

1 Enoch exists in its entirety only in the Ethiopic language, with Aramaic fragments obtained from the Dead Sea scrolls and fragments in Greek and Latin. The original text was probably composed partly in Hebrew, partly in Aramaic, as was the text of Daniel for that matter (see E. Isaac, in James H. Charlesworth, ed, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, p. 6). Several authors could be the source of the work which would span time, but it was most likely completed by the end of the first century CE. It would have originated in Judea and some of it was known to the Qumran community. Its contents reflect the period before and after the Maccabean revolt.

The New Testament authors probably knew the contents of 1 Enoch, but only the epistle of Jude makes explicit reference to it (14-15). It has not, however, been retained by both Judaism and Christianity as part of the canon. Nevertheless, the Orthodox Church of Ethiopia and Eritrea considers it to be part of Scripture.

When we turn to the Church Fathers, we note that the Epistle of Barnabas, Athenagoras, Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus, and Tertullian considered it part of Scripture.

-André Gilbert, June 2016

Translation by E. Isaac, 1 Enoch in James H. Charlesworth, ed, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapa. Apocalyptic Literature & Testments. Garden City: Doubleday, 1983, p. 5-89

Extract from the Introduction by E. Isaac


1 Enoch is found complete only in the Ethiopic (Ge'ez) Version, for which more than forty manuscripts are known to exist as of this writing. However, fragments of the work are also found in Aramaic, Greek, and Latin.

  1. Aramaic: Aramaic fragments of 1 Enoch were found at Qumran and have been recently published, together with a major study of the text and history of 1 Enoch.

  2. Ethiopic: As has been indicated above, the complete version of 1 Enoch is preserved only in Ethiopic. Below are a list of five major and important manuscripts, one of which (A) has been utilized as the base text of the present English translation, and another of which (C) has been used very extensively in the same work:
    1. Kebran 9/II (Hammerschmidt - Tanasee 9/11); fifteenth century.
    2. Princeton Ethiopic 3 (Garrett collection - Isaac 3); eighteenth or nineteenth century.
    3. EMML 2080; fifteenth (possibly 14th) century.
    4. Abbadianus 55; possibly fifteenth century.
    5. British Museum Orient 485 (Wright 6); first half of the sixteenth century.

  3. Greek: The Greek fragments are found principally in the following:
    1. Codex Panopolitanus (two 8th-cent. or later MSS, found in 1886-87 in a Christian grave in Akhmim, Egypt), containing 1 Enoch 1:1-32:6 (designated Ga in this work).
    2. Chronographia of Georgius Syncellus (c. 800), containing 1 Enoch 6:1-10:14; 15:8-16:1 (designated Gs in this work).
    3. Chester Beatty papyrus of 1 Enoch containing 97:6-104; 106f. (published by C. Bonner, The Last Chapters of Enoch in Greek) (designated GP in this work).
    4. Vatican Greek MS 1809, containing 1 Enoch 89:42-49.

  4. Latin: a Latin fragment, containing 1 Enoch 106:1-18, found in an eighth-century manuscript.


The following outline of sections and their dates was essentially the consensus of critical scholars:

1Apocalypse of Weeks91:12-17; 93:1-10early pre-Maccabean
2Fragments of Enochic Visions12-16early pre-Maccabean
3Fragments of the Book of Noah6-11; 106f. cf. 54:7-55:2; 60; 65-69:25late pre-Maccabean
4Independent Fragment105? pre-Maccabean
5Dream Visions83-90c. 165-161 B.C.
6Book of Heavenly Luminaries72-82110 B.C.
7Similitudes37-71105-64 B.C.
8Later Additions to Dream Visions91:1-11, 18, 19; 92; 94-104105-104 B.C
9Introductory Chapters1-5late pre-Christian

Historical Importance

Information regarding the usage and importance of the work in the Jewish and Christian communities, other than the Ethiopic Church, is sparse. It is difficult, therefore, to understand its exact origin. It seems clear, nonetheless, that 1 Enoch was well known to many Jews, particularly the Essenes, and early Christians, notably the author of Jude. The earliest portions of the work originated probably in a proto-Essene milieu; the latter sections perhaps in a setting quite different from Qumran Essenism.

1 Enoch reflects the historical events immediately preceding and following the Maccabean Revolt. More important, however, is the light it throws upon early Essene theology and upon earliest Christianity. It was used by the authors of Jubilees, the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, the Assumption of Moses, 2 Baruch, and 4 Ezra. Some New Testament authors seem to have been acquainted with the work, and were influenced by it, including Jude, who quotes it explicitly (l:14f.). At any rate, it is clear that Enochic concepts are found in various New Testament books, including the Gospels and Revelation.

1 Enoch played a significant role in the early Church; it was used by the authors of the Epistle of Barnabas, the Apocalypse of Peter, and a number of apologetic works. Many Church Fathers, including Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Origen, and Clement of Alexandria, either knew 1 Enoch or were inspired by it. Among those who were familiar with 1 Enoch, Tertullian had an exceptionally high regard for it. But, beginning in the fourth century, the book came to be regarded with disfavor and received negative reviews from Augustine, Hilary, and Jerome. Thereafter, with the exception of a few extracts made by Georgius Syncellus, a learned monk of the eighth century, and the Greek fragments found in a Christian grave in Egypt (c. A.D. 800), 1 Enoch ceased to be appreciated except in Ethiopia. The relegation of 1 Enoch to virtual oblivion by medieval minds should not diminish its significance for Christian origins; few other apocryphal books so indelibly marked the religious history and thought of the time of Jesus.

Theological Importance

1 Enoch helps clarify the rich complexities of both intertestamental Jewish thought and early Christian theology. In this brief introduction it is only possible to sketch a few of 1 Enoch's many ideas, motifs, symbolisms, and important theological concepts.

The God of I Enoch is the righteous and just God of the Old Testament; he is the Creator of the world, the holy lawgiver, the dispenser of history, and the ultimate judge of all.

Genesis 6:1-4 alludes to the sons of God who had intercourse with the daughters of the people. 1 Enoch transforms this idea into a theology of fallen angels, who consorted with women and produced giants who sinned against the people. They corrupted the people through the instructions in forbidden sciences like making arms, cosmetics, precious metals. Enoch's intercession on behalf of the fallen angels fails; he is instructed, on the contrary, to predict their final doom (12-16). Allusions to the legend of the fallen angels occur elsewhere in Jewish writings (viz. Jub; Sir 16:7; CD 2.14-3.13; 4Q 180f.; and rabbinic Midrashim).

One of the extensively discussed concepts in 1 Enoch, particularly by students of New Testament theology, is that of the heavenly Messiah (45-57). The Messiah in 1 Enoch, called the Righteous One, and the Son of Man, is depicted as a pre-existent heavenly being who is resplendent and majestic, possesses all dominion, and sits on his throne of glory passing judgment upon all mortal and spiritual beings.

This description of the Messiah is placed in the Similitudes in the context of reflections upon the last judgment, the coming destruction of the wicked, and the triumph of the righteous ones. This eschatological concept is the most prominent and recurring theme throughout the whole book. The very introduction (1-5) opens with an announcement of the final, coming punishment, the destruction of the wicked ones and the resurrection of the righteous ones to an endless and sinless eternal life. Likewise, in the Dream Visions (83-90) the same theme is recalled. In this case, the righteous dead, including converted gentiles, will be resurrected, the Messiah will appear, his kingdom will be founded, and the new Jerusalem established; on the other hand, the sinners, the fallen angels, including the apostate Jews, will be judged. The last-major section of 1 Enoch (91-105) is an admonition to righteousness, for he predicts that the wicked shall be condemned to eternal punishment in Sheol, whereas the righteous shall have a blessed resurrection to enjoy the bliss of heaven.

One of the central emphases of 1 Enoch is that sinners are economic exploiters, the political oppressors, and the socially unjust people of this world. Thus, while 1 Enoch will deepen our insights into and broaden our perspectives of intertestamental Jewish and early Christian theology, it also will help us to appreciate the revolutionary mood of Jews and their staunch opposition not only to Greek and Roman imperialism, but also to Jewish aristocracy itself.

There is also a social concern behind 1 Enoch's computation of time and understanding of the calendar. Time should be reckoned only by the sun, not by the moon as in the Pharisaic lunar calendar. The author's solar year consists of 364 days, and not 365 1/4, a fact of which he is also aware. The calendrical discussion is tied to a spiritual concern; in the last days the sun, moon, stars, and earth will be disrupted in cosmic chaos.

Introducing the following translation

My primary base text (A) for this translation of Ethiopic Enoch is a fifteenth-century Ethiopic manuscript found in a monastery in Kebran, in Lake Tana. I obtained a copy of this manuscript from a microfilm (A) now found in West Germany. Though I have chosen to use as my base text a single manuscript, instead of an existing eclectic text or one created temporarily as the real basis of my translation, I have continually compared A with another Ethiopia manuscript of the late eighteenth century (B) found in the Garrett collection of Princeton University as well as with the text of R. H. Charles (C), and, in a few cases, followed them instead of A where the latter is clearly wrong or unintelligible. I have been as faithful as possible to A, following it even when B and C and all other known witnesses, attested by the variations of other manuscripts given in the apparatus of Charles (EC), disagree with it, except in clear cases where A obviously transmits grammatical, syntactical, or scribal errors.

It appears to me that in general A is superior to B and C, often giving shorter and more difficult readings (see, for instance, 71:8f.). I have been able to examine briefly microfilms of three important Enoch manuscripts - EMML 2080 (15th cent.), 4437 (17th cent.), and 4750 (17th cent.) - copies of which are presently found in the Hill Monastic Microfilm Library, St. John's University, Collegeville, Minnesota, to ascertain the importance of A.


(1) Enoch, a righteous man, received a revelation from the angels of what God intended to do for the present time (the author's time): to return to Mount Sinai to judge the universe, to destroy sinners and to grant mercy and benevolence to the righteous. (2-5) When we look at the stars in the sky and observe the unchanging cycle of the seasons and nature, we must admit the eternal order established by God. Unfortunately, sinners have been haughty and have strayed from God's commandments. Therefore, their lives will be shortened and they will be doomed to an eternal curse, while the elect, the righteous, will inherit the earth and prolong their lives in peace.

(6-8) In the time of Enoch's father, two hundred angels decided to unite with the wives of men, because they were very beautiful, and from them giants were born. And unfortunately, these angels taught the science of botany and the technology of metal, which caused great impiety and led men astray. (9) Then Michael, Sariel, Raphael and Gabriel, four angels of heaven, seeing in particular the crimes and violence committed by the giants, decide to intervene with God. (10-11) God reacts with a series of orders: he asks to warn Noah of the coming flood and the means of escaping it; he sends Raphael to chain Azael, the leader of the corrupt angels, in the desert, waiting to be thrown into the furnace at the time of the Judgment; he sends Gabriel to lead the giants to their death by an internal war; finally, he sends Michael to chain all the corrupt angels until the day of the Judgment, when they will be thrown into a furnace of fire. Then the whole earth will be purified, the righteous will live in peace and have a long life, reaping the fruits of the earth. (12-16) Earlier, Enoch went to heaven to question Azael about his rebellion and to announce his sentence. But he agrees to write a petition for absolution for all the rebellious angels who are now ashamed of their sin. Unfortunately, in a dream, Enoch learns that his request has been rejected; God tells him that it is not up to him to intercede for them, but it is they who must pray for men, they who were immortal, and who introduced violence and destruction on earth through the giants.

(17-19) The angels carry Enoch to heaven, where the reservoir of wind, rain, thunder and lightning is located, they also show him the stone that supports the earth with its four pillars as well as the sea that surrounds it, then beyond that, the huge mountains that determine the boundary of the earth, after which is the great void where the stars and the rebellious angels are thrown.

(20) Name of the seven archangels : Suru'el, Raphael, Raguel, Michael, Saraqa'el, Gabriel

(21-27) Enoch goes to the time of chaos, before the creation of heaven and earth, where he observes seven of the stars of heaven being chained in fire for transgressing God's command. Further on, there is a more frightening place, the eternal prison of the rebellious angels. Further on, he sees four caves, three of which are for sinners, and one for the righteous, all awaiting the final judgment. In one of them he hears the complaint of the spirit of Abel accusing the race of Cain of having killed him. In another are the spirits of sinners who have not undergone judgment in this world and who are now enduring torment while awaiting the eternal scourging at the Judgment. In yet another, those who, although sinners, have suffered so much in this life that they will be punished less than others, without tasting eternal life. Continuing his journey, Enoch sees three magnificent mountains to the east, resting one on top of the other, three to the south, resting one on top of the other, and a seventh mountain in the center, which is extremely high, the place where God presents himself when he visits the earth, and where there is a very fragrant tree whose fruit will be given to the righteous so that they may prolong their lives. Enoch finally reaches the middle of the earth where there are many mountains and a deep, dry ravine without trees, the place where all the damned will be gathered.

(28-36) Enoch then begins a journey eastward where he observes a series of places: first a desert place, except for a place covered with trees and water, then a place of mountains with fragrant trees, followed by ravines with fragrant reeds, then a new series of mountains with either resinous trees, or with almond hulls, or with spices, before arriving at the paradise of justice across the Red Sea. There he sees the tree of knowledge. Enoch reaches the ends of the earth where he meets all kinds of beasts, the place where the sky and the gates of heaven rest, and where he can observe the movement of the stars. Turning to the north, he sees three gates of heaven for the wind, one gate for the favorable wind, and two for the violent winds. The same thing happens on the west side and on the south side, except that here the dew, rain and south wind come out.

(37-44) Having received wisdom from God, Enoch composes three parables. In the first, Enoch announces that on the day of judgment, kings, the powerful and sinners will be dispossessed and given into the hands of the righteous, and they will be eliminated. He is transported to heaven where he has a vision: the righteous and the angels stand before God and glorify him without ceasing. Enoch wants to stay there and in turn blesses God saying: holy, holy, holy. Then he hears the voice of four archangels: Michael, the angel of mercy; Raphael, in charge of all diseases; Gabriel, in charge of all power; Phanuel, in charge of repentance. Then, the secrets of the heavens are revealed to him, as much concerning the final judgment as concerning the natural phenomena and the cycle of the stars. Finally, Enoch recognizes that wisdom has left the dwelling place of men, and violence has established itself there.

(45-57) In his second parable, Enoch introduces us to the Chosen One whom God will seat on his throne of glory to rule over human actions. He is one whose face is human in appearance, a son of man in whom righteousness dwells and who will drive kings from their thrones and all those who persecute the righteous. For the blood of the righteous goes up to heaven as a prayer and joins the prayer of the angels. This son of man existed before creation and became the staff of the righteous, a light for the nations, whose hope he will be until the day when the mighty and the kings will be tormented and will be swallowed up by the righteous. Then the righteous will triumph and teach others to be converted. The Chosen One will sit on the throne of God and all the mysteries of wisdom will be spoken by his mouth. The Messiah will exercise his power over the earth, and all metals used for war will become useless. The kings and the mighty will be thrown into a pit, the reservoirs of the waters above the heavens and those of the underground springs will be opened, and Sheol will open its mouth to swallow up all the violent.

(58-69) In his third parable, Enoch announces that the righteous will be in the light of eternal life and the forces of nature will be at their service. On the day of judgment, the female dragon, called Leviathan, and the male dragon, called Behemoth, will be separated, the one cast into the abyss of the sea, the other into the dry land of the desert. All the forces of nature, whether lightning and thunder, the strength of the sea, the frost, the snow and hail, the dew and rain, all are subject to God. In the same way, nothing escapes God's control among humans, who is able to measure the most secret actions, and to bring back to life those who have died as victims of the desert, or of the teeth of wild beasts, or swallowed by the fish of the sea. On that day, the universe with all the angels will bless God. During that time, the Chosen One, seated on the throne, will kill all sinners with the word of his mouth. For from the beginning the Son of Man was kept hidden, but now he is revealed. Then all the kings, the mighty, the great, and the rulers of the world will bow down before him and ask him for mercy and put their hope in him. They will express their remorse for having put their faith in their glory and for having repented of ill-gotten gains. Then their faces will be covered with darkness and shame in the presence of this Son of Man. Meanwhile, Enoch has a vision of Noah who comes to him to know the reason for the shaking of the earth. He announces its destruction for having known all the secrets of the angels, all the power of the sorcerers and the technology of metal. On the other hand, God knows that Noah is virtuous and will preserve him and his descendants from the cataclysm. As for the seducing angels, they were thrown into a pit of molten metal, full of the smell of sulfur. In the same way, the waters that served the kings, the powerful, the great and the inhabitants of the earth as a bodily remedy and a moment of pleasure will serve them as a spiritual punishment by becoming a burning fire.

(70-71) The son of man is lifted up alive to God, taken up by a chariot of wind. In the same way, the soul of Enoch is taken up and lifted into the heavens where Michael introduces him to the heavenly mysteries. And God comes to him to invest him with the title of son of man, the one who will show the way of peace to all humanity.

(72-82) Enoch explains the cycle of the sun, which comes out of six gates, according to the length of the day, and after setting in the west, returns to the east through the north, all in 364 days. The moon is the same size as the sun, but seven times less bright. Like the sun, it moves, pushed by a wind chariot. It begins to shine on the thirtieth day, and from there we start counting the beginning of the month during which it metamorphoses into different quarters, perfecting its illumination, before becoming dark again. While the solar year has 364 days, the lunar year has 358 days. Also, four intercalary days must be added to follow the cosmic order. The angel Ouriel is in charge of this order. He is the one who opens the doors of heaven through which the sun's rays, the wind and the dew pass. For example, for the wind, he has three gates for each of the cardinal points: from four of these gates come the winds to cleanse and vivify the earth, from eight come the winds that ravage the earth. Enoch then gives the details of each gate. Then he explains that the frost comes from the seven high snow-capped mountains. Once again, he returns to the phases of the moon. Unfortunately, this beautiful order of nature is disturbed in the time of the sinners: it is drought and famine, the sowing is late as well as the harvest, the sun shines more than usual. Finally, Enoch is given heavenly tablets that he reads carefully and that he has the mission to make known to the generation that will survive him. This is what he does after he has been brought back to the door of his house, and first of all by addressing his son Methuselah.

(83-84) Enoch tells his son Methuselah about a dream he had in the house of his forefather Mahalalel, when he was young and learning to write. In his sleep, he saw the destruction of the earth because of sin. After waking up and seeing the sun in its usual place, he made a prayer to God both to praise his wisdom, and to ask him not to destroy everything in his anger, but to leave at least one posterity, the people who remained righteous.

(85-90) Enoch again tells his son Methuselah a dream he had before his marriage. This dream summarizes Jewish history and ends with the last judgment, the resurrection of the dead and the new humanity. It begins with various characters: bulls, heifers, calves, and a play of colors: white, black, red. All this symbolizes the story of Adam and Eve, their two sons, and the murder of Abel by Cain. Then comes the descent of the angels from heaven represented by the stars, their promiscuity with the bulls that are men, and the birth of the giants represented by elephants, camels and donkeys, and the great violence that followed. This leads to the intervention of the archangels who throw the fallen angels into the abyss and cause the giants to kill each other. Then comes the story of Noah who appears as a white bull who becomes a man and builds a ship to escape the flood. As the nations begin to multiply, represented by the wild beasts and birds, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac and Esai appear, represented by the white bull, the primrose and the boar. The history of the Jewish people continues under the image of the sheep, first twelve sheep, the twelve sons of Jacob, one of which, Joseph, is found among the Egyptians, called wolves. This is followed by the story of the plagues of Egypt and the exit from the land of the wolves under the leadership of Moses. We thus arrive at Sinai where the Master of the sheep shows his face. Unfortunately, while Moses is on top of the mountain, several sheep start to go astray, which forces the immediate intervention of the latter, called simply: the sheep. He brings the lost back to the right path and builds a home for his Master. After the death of Moses, we enter the promised land and witness the institution of royalty, represented by rams, the construction of the temple, then the schism between the northern and southern tribes, until the intervention of the Babylonians, represented by lions. From that moment on, the shepherds of the flock will be drawn from the pagan nations. The Persian era follows that of Babylon, and then comes the era of the Greeks, represented by eagles that eat the flesh of the sheep. Faced with this situation, a group of white lambs, probably representing the sect to which the author of 1 Enoch belongs, try in vain to convince the sheep to convert. On the other hand, some sheep grow horns, which evokes the episode of the Maccabean revolt. But the real victory will come only when God intervenes definitively in his final judgment, which will be exercised first against the fallen angels, then against the shepherds of the nations, and then against the unfaithful Israelites, all of whom will be thrown into a pit full of burning fire. And God will replace the present temple with a new, greater and higher temple. All the nations of the earth will submit to the people of Israel, and the dead will be raised, and all will join together in the new temple. From then on, the new Adam appears in the guise of a white bull, and the whole herd is transfigured in the image of this messiah.

(91-108) In this last part are gathered various texts that aim to encourage the righteous to remain faithful, and to challenge the sinners who are deluded in their impunity. First of all, Enoch asks his son Methuselah to gather his relatives, because he wants to encourage them to continue their walk in truth and justice, warning them that oppression, crime and sin are about to increase on the earth. This is followed by a parable of Enoch in which the whole history of mankind is presented in ten weeks, seven of which belong to the past and three to the future. In the first week Enoch appeared in a world of justice. But in the second week lies and violence arose and led to the flood. In the third week came Abraham, followed by Moses and the exit from Egypt in the fourth week, and the building of the temple in the fifth week. With the sixth week comes the monarchical decadence, followed by the seventh week when a perverse generation takes its place, to which the sect of the clairvoyants, to which the author of 1 Enoch probably belongs, reacts. The struggle of the righteous against the ungodly will take place in the eighth week and their victory will allow the building of a new temple, followed in the ninth week by the revelation of God's judgment which sends the ungodly into the pit, and the final judgment of the seducing angels in the tenth week. All of this is supported by a series of exhortations to avoid evil, and a series of curses on the rich, the oppressors, the cheats, the liars, and the criminal. For God knows all human actions, and everyone bears responsibility for his sins. And on the Day of Judgment, the sinners will be recognized by the righteous whom they have persecuted and they will all perish. So the righteous should not be sad if they die without being rewarded for their good works in this life and they see the unrighteous eating with impunity, and they feel that their prayer has not been heard before God. For on the Day of the Great Judgment no deed will be forgotten. The sinners and the ungodly will be thrown into a blazing flame, a place of pain and groaning. As for those who preferred heaven to their own lives in this world, who continued to bless God while they were oppressed, they will each be seated on a throne of glory and will shine for countless times.

Note: The verse number often contains a hyperlink to a brief commentary. These commentaries are from André Caquot, 1 Hénoch, La Bible. Écrits intertestamentaires. Paris: France, Gallimard (Bibiliothèque de la Pléiade), 1987. Simply click on this link, and thereafter on the back arrow.


Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
Chapter 16
Chapter 17
Chapter 18
Chapter 19
Chapter 20
Chapter 21
Chapter 22
Chapter 23
Chapter 24
Chapter 25
Chapter 26
Chapter 27
Chapter 28
Chapter 29
Chapter 30
Chapter 31
Chapter 32
Chapter 33
Chapter 34
Chapter 35
Chapter 36

Chapter 37
Chapter 38
Chapter 39
Chapter 40
Chapter 41
Chapter 42
Chapter 43
Chapter 44
Chapter 45
Chapter 46
Chapter 47
Chapter 48
Chapter 49
Chapter 50
Chapter 51
Chapter 52
Chapter 53
Chapter 54
Chapter 55
Chapter 56
Chapter 57
Chapter 58
Chapter 59
Chapter 60
Chapter 61
Chapter 62
Chapter 63
Chapter 64
Chapter 65
Chapter 66
Chapter 67
Chapter 68
Chapter 69
Chapter 70
Chapter 71

Chapter 72
Chapter 73
Chapter 74
Chapter 75
Chapter 76
Chapter 77
Chapter 78
Chapter 79
Chapter 80
Chapter 81
Chapter 82

Chapter 83
Chapter 84
Chapter 85
Chapter 86
Chapter 87
Chapter 88
Chapter 89
Chapter 90

Chapter 91
Chapter 92
Chapter 93
Chapter 94
Chapter 95
Chapter 96
Chapter 97
Chapter 98
Chapter 99
Chapter 100
Chapter 101
Chapter 102
Chapter 103
Chapter 104
Chapter 105
Chapter 106
Chapter 107
Chapter 108


BOOK 1 (1-36)

Introductory Visions And Parables Of Enoch

The righteous and the wicked
Chapter 1

1 The blessing of Enoch: with which he blessed the elect and the righteous who would be present on the day of tribulation at (the time of) the removal of all the ungodly ones. 2 And Enoch, the blessed and righteous man of the Lord, took up (his parable) while his eyes were open and he saw, and said, "(This is) a holy vision from the heavens which the angels showed me: and I heard from them everything and I understood. I look not for this generation but for the distant one that is coming. I speak about the elect ones and concerning them." 3 And I took up with a parable (saying), "The God of the universe, the Holy Great One, will come forth from his dwelling. 4 And from there he will march upon Mount Sinai and appear in his camp emerging from heaven with a mighty power. And everyone shall be afraid, and Watchers shall quiver. 5 And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth. 6 Mountains and high places will fall down and be frightened. And high hills shall be made low; and they shall melt like a honeycomb before the flame. 7 And earth shall be rent asunder; and all that is upon the earth shall perish. And there shall be a judgment upon all, (including) the righteous. 8 And to all the righteous he will grant peace. He will preserve the elect, and kindness shall be upon them. They shall all belong to God and they shall prosper and be blessed; and the light of God shall shine unto them. 9 Behold, he will arrive with ten million of the holy ones in order to execute judgment upon all. He will destroy the wicked ones and censure all flesh on account of everything that they have done, that which the sinners and the wicked ones committed against him."

Chapter 2

1 Examine all the activiti(es which take place) in the sky and how they do not alter their ways, (and examine) the luminaries of heaven, how each one of them rises and sets; each one is systematic according to its respective season; and they do not divert from their appointed order. 2 And look at the earth and turn in your mind concerning the action which is taking place in her from the beginning to the end: how all the work of God as being manifested does not change. 3 And behold the summer and the winter, how the whole earth is filled with water and clouds and dew; and he causes rain to rest upon her.

Chapter 3

1 Examine and observe everything - and the trees, how all their leaves appear as if they wither and had fallen, except fourteen trees whose (leaves) do not fall but the old (foliage) remains for about two to three years until the new (leaves) come.

Chapter 4

1 And again, examine the days of the summer, how (the heat of) the sun is upon (the earth) and dominates her. And as for you, you will crave shade and shelter on account of the heat of the sun; and the earth shall burn with scorching heat, and you are not able to walk on the earth or on the rock on account of the heat

Chapter 5

1 Observe how the verdant trees are covered with leaves and they bear fruit. Pay attention concerning all things and know in what manner he fashioned them. All of them belong to him who lives forever. 2 His work proceeds and progresses from year to year. And all his work prospers and obeys him, and it does not change; but everything functions in the way in which God has ordered it. 3 And look at the seas: They do not part; they fulfill all their duties. 4 But as for you, you have not been longsuffering and you have not done the commandments of the Lord, but you have transgressed and spoken slanderously grave and harsh words with your impure mouths against his greatness. Oh, you hard-hearted, may you not find peace! 5 Therefore, you shall curse your days, and the years of your life shall perish and multiply in eternal execration; and there will not be any mercy unto you. 6 In those days, you shall make your names an eternal execration unto all the righteous; and the sinners shall curse you continually - you together with the sinners. 7 But to the elect there shall be light, joy, and peace, and they shall inherit the earth. To you, wicked ones, on the contrary, there will be a curse. 8 And then wisdom shall be given to the elect. And they shall all live and not return again to sin, either by being wicked or through pride; but those who have wisdom shall be humble and not return again to sin. 9 And they shall not be judged all the days of their lives; nor die through plague or wrath, but they shall complete the (designated) number of the days of their life. 10 And peace shall increase their lives and the years of their happiness shall be multiplied forever in gladness and peace all the days of their life.

The fall of angels
Chapter 6

1 In those days, when the children of man had multiplied, it happened that there were born unto them handsome and beautiful daughters. 2 And the angels, the children of heaven, saw them and desired them; and they said to one another, "Come, let us choose wives for ourselves from among the daughters of man and beget us children." 3 And Semyaz, being their leader, said unto them, "I fear that perhaps you will not consent that this deed should be done, and I alone will become (responsible) for this great sin." 4 But they all responded to him, "Let us all swear an oath and bind everyone among us by a curse not to abandon this suggestion but to do the deed." 5 Then they all swore together and bound one another by (the curse). 6 And they were altogether two hundred; and they descended into 'Ardos, which is the summit of Hermon. And they called the mount Armon, for they swore and bound one another by a curse. 7 And their names are as follows: Semyaz, the leader of Arakeb, Rame'el, Tam'el, Ram'el, Dan'el, Ezeqel, Baraqyal, As'el, Armaros, Batar'el, Anan'el, Zaqe'el, Sasomaspe'el, Kestar'el, Tur'el, Yamayol, and Arazyal. 8 These are their chiefs of tens and of all the others with them.

Chapter 7

1 And they took wives unto themselves, and everyone (respectively) chose one woman for himself, and they began to go unto them. And they taught them magical medicine, incantations, the cutting of roots, and taught them (about) plants. 2 And the women became pregnant and gave birth to great giants whose heights were three hundred cubits. 3 These (giants) consumed the produce of all the peoples until the people detested feeding them. 4 So the giants turned against (the people) in order to eat them. 5 And they began to sin against birds, wild beasts, reptiles, and fish. And their flesh was devoured the one by the other, and they drank blood. 6 And then the earth brought an accusation against the oppressors.

Chapter 8

1 And Azaz'el taught the people (the art of) making swords and knives, and shields, and breastplates; and he showed to their chosen ones bracelets, decorations, (shadowing of the eye) with antimony, ornamentation, the beautifying of the eyelids, all kinds of precious stones, and all coloring tinctures and alchemy. 2 And there were many wicked ones and they committed adultery and erred, and all their conduct became corrupt. 3 Amasras taught incantation and the cutting of roots; and Armaros the resolving of incantations; and Baraqiyal astrology, and Kokarer'el (the knowledge of) the signs, and Tam'el taught the seeing of the stars, and Asder'el taught the course of the moon as well as the deception of man. 4 And (the people) cried and their voice reached unto heaven.

Chapter 9

1 Then Michael, Surafel, and Gabriel observed carefully from the sky and they saw much blood being shed upon the earth, and all the oppression being wrought upon the earth. 2 And they said to one another, "The earth, (from) her empty (foundation), has brought the cry of their voice unto the gates of heaven. 3 And now, [O] holy ones of heaven, the souls of people are putting their case before you pleading, 'Bring our judgment before the Most High.'" 4 And they said to the Lord of the potentates, "For he is the Lord of lords, and the God of gods, and the King of kings, and the seat of his glory" (stands) throughout all the generations of the world. Your name is holy, and blessed, and glorious throughout the whole world. 5 You have made everything and with you is the authority for everything. Everything is naked and open before your sight, and you see everything; and there is nothing which can hide itself from you. 6 You see what Azaz'el has done; how he has taught all (forms of) oppression upon the earth. And they revealed eternal secrets which are performed in heaven (and which) man learned. 7 (Moreover) Semyaz, to whom you have given power to rule over his companions, co-operating, they went in unto the daughters of the people on earth; 8 and they lay together with them - with those women - and defiled themselves, and revealed to them every (kind of) sin. 9 As for the women, they gave birth to giants to the degree that the whole earth was filled with blood and oppression. 10 And now behold, the Holy One will cry and those who have died will bring their suit up to the gate of heaven. Their groaning has ascended (into heaven), but they could not get out from before the face of the oppression that is being wrought on earth. 11 And you know everything (even) before it came to existence, and you see (this thing) (but) you do not tell us what is proper for us that we may do regarding it."

Chapter 10

1 And then spoke the Most High, the Great and Holy One! And he sent Asuryal to the son of Lamech, (saying), 2 "Tell him in my name, 'Hide yourself!' and reveal to him the end of what is coming; for the earth and everything will be destroyed. And the Deluge is about to come upon all the earth; and all that is in it will be destroyed. 3 And now instruct him in order that he may flee, and his seed will be preserved for all generations." 4 And secondly the Lord said to Raphael, "Bind Azaz'el hand and foot (and) throw him into the darkness!" And he made a hole in the desert which was in Duda'el and cast him there; 5 he threw on top of him rugged and sharp rocks. And he covered his face in order that he may not see light; 6 and in order that he may be sent into the fire on the great day of judgment. 7 And give life to the earth which the angels have corrupted. And he will proclaim life for the earth: that he is giving life to her. And all the children of the people will not perish through all the secrets (of the angels)," which they taught to their sons. 8 And the whole earth has been corrupted by Azaz'el's teaching of his (own) actions; and write upon him all sin. 9 And to Gabriel the Lord said, "Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates and against the children of adultery; and destroy the children of adultery and expel the children of the Watchers from among the people. And send them against one another (so that) they may be destroyed in the fight, for length of days have they not. 10 They will beg you everything -- for their fathers on behalf of themselves - because they hope to live an eternal life. (They hope) that each one of them will live a period of five hundred years." 11 And to Michael God said, "Make known to Semyaza and the others who are with him, who fornicated with the women, that they will die together with them in all their defilement. 12 And when they and all their children have battled with each other, and when they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them for seventy generations underneath the rocks of the ground until the day of their judgment and of their consummation, until the eternal judgment is concluded. 13 In those days they will lead them into the bottom of the fire - and in torment - in the prison (where) they will be locked up forever. 14 And at the time when they will burn and die, those who collaborated with them will be bound together with them from henceforth unto the end of (all) generations. 15 And destroy all the souls of pleasure and the children of the Watchers, for they have done injustice to man. 16 Destroy injustice from the face of the earth. And every iniquitous deed will end, and the plant of righteousness and truth will appear forever and he will plant joy. 17 And then all the righteous ones will escape; and become the living ones until they multiply and become tens of hundreds; and all the days of their youth and the years of their retirement they will complete in is peace. 18 And in those days the whole earth will be worked in righteousness, all of her planted with trees, and will find blessing. 19 And they shall plant pleasant trees upon her - vines. And he who plants a vine upon her will produce wine for plenitude. And every seed that is sown on her, one measure will yield a thousand (measures) and one measure of olives will yield ten measures of presses of oil. 20 And you cleanse the earth from all injustice, and from all defilement, and from all oppression, and from all sin, and from all iniquity which is being done on earth; remove them from the earth. 21 And all the children of the people will become righteous, and all nations shall worship and bless me; and they will all prostrate themselves to me. 22 And the earth shall be cleansed from all pollution, and from all sin, and from all plague, and from all suffering; and it shall not happen again that I shall send (these) upon the earth from generation to generation and forever.

Chapter 11

1 "And in those days I shall open the storerooms of blessing which are in the heavens, so that I shall send them down upon the earth, over the work and the toil of the children of man. 2 And peace and truth shall become partners together in all the days of the world, and in all the generations of the world."

Dream vision of Enoch: his intercession for the fallen angels
Chapter 12

1 Before these things (happened) Enoch was hidden, and no one of the children of the people knew by what he was hidden and where he was. 2 And his dwelling place as well as his activities were with the Watchers and the holy ones; and (so were) his days. 3 And I, Enoch, began to bless the Lord of the mighty ones and the King of the universe. 4 At that moment the Watchers were calling me. And they said to me, "Enoch, scribe of righteousness, go and make known to the Watchers of heaven who have abandoned the high heaven, the holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, as their deeds move the children of the world, and have taken unto themselves wives: They have defiled themselves with great defilement upon the earth; 5 neither will there be peace unto them nor the forgiveness of sin. 6 For their children delight in seeing the murder of their beloved ones. But they shall groan and beg forever over the destruction of their children, and there shall not be peace unto them even forever."

His intercession for Azaz'el
Chapter 13

1 As for Enoch, he proceeded and said to Azaz'el, "There will not be peace unto you; a grave judgment has come upon you. 2 They will put you in bonds, and you will not have (an opportunity for) rest and supplication, because you have taught injustice and because you have shown to the people deeds of shame, injustice, and sin." 3 Then I went and spoke to all of them together; and they were all frightened, and fear and trembling seized them. 4 And they begged me to write for them a memorial prayer in order that there may be for them a prayer of forgiveness, and so that I may raise their memorial prayer unto the Lord of heaven. 5 For, as for themselves, from henceforth they will not be able to speak, nor will they raise their eyes unto heaven as a result of their sins which have been condemned. 6 And then I wrote down their memorial prayers and the petitions on behalf of their spirits and the deeds of each one of them, on account of the fact that they have prayed in order that there may be for them forgiveness (of sin) and a length (of days). 7 And I went and sat down upon the waters of Dan - in Dan which is on the southwest of Hermon - and I read their memorial prayers until I fell asleep. 8 And behold a dream came to me and visions fell upon me, and I saw a vision of plagues (so that) I may speak to the children of heaven and reprimand them. 9 And upon my awakening, I came unto them (while) they were all conferring together, in Lesya'el, which is (located) between Lebanon and Sanser, while weeping and with their faces covered. 10 And I recounted before them all the visions that I had seen in sleep and began to speak those words of righteousness and to reprimand the Watchers of heaven.

Chapter 14

1 This is the book of the words of righteousness and the chastisement of the eternal Watchers, in accordance with how the Holy and Great One had commanded in this vision. 2 I saw in my sleep what I now speak with my tongue of flesh and the breath of the mouth which the Great One has given to man (so that) he (man) may speak with it - and (so that) he may have understanding with his heart as he (the Great One) has created and given it to man. 3 Accordingly he has created me and given me the word of understanding so that I may reprimand the Watchers, the children of heaven. 4 I wrote down your prayers - so it appeared in vision - for your prayers will not be heard throughout all the days of eternity; and judgment is passed upon you. 5 From now on you will not be able to ascend into heaven unto all eternity, but you shall remain inside the earth, imprisoned all the days of eternity. 6 Before that you will have seen the destruction of your beloved sons and you will not have their treasures, which will fall before your eyes by the sword. 7 And your petitions on their behalf will not be heard - neither will those on your own behalf (which you offer) weeping (and) praying - and you will not speak even a word contained in the book which I wrote.

Enoch's vision

8 And behold I saw the clouds: And they were calling me in a vision; and the fogs were calling me; and the course of the stars and the lightnings were rushing me and causing me to desire; and in the vision, the winds were causing me to fly and rushing me high up into heaven. 9 And I kept coming (into heaven) until approached a wall which was built of white marble and surrounded by tongues of fire; and it began to frighten me. 10 And I came into the tongues of the fire and drew near to a great house which was built of white marble, and the inner wall(s) were like mosaics of white marble, the floor of crystal, 11 the ceiling like the path of the stars and lightnings between which (stood) fiery cherubim and their heaven of water; 12 and flaming fire surrounded the wall(s), and its gates were burning with fire. 13 And I entered into the house, which was hot like fire and cold like ice, and there was nothing inside it; (so) fear covered me and trembling seized me. 14 And as I shook and trembled, I fell upon my face and saw a vision. 15 And behold there was an opening before me (and) a second house which is greater than the former and everything was built with tongues of fire. 16 And in every respect it excelled (the other) - in glory and great honor - to the extent that it is impossible for me to recount to you concerning its glory and greatness. 17 As for its floor, it was of fire and above it was lightning and the path of the stars; and as for the ceiling, it was flaming fire. 18 And I observed and saw inside it a lofty throne - its appearance was like crystal and its wheels like the shining sun; and (I heard?) the voice of the cherubim; 19 and from beneath the throne were issuing streams of flaming fire. It was difficult to look at it. 20 And the Great Glory was sitting upon it - as for his gown, which was shining more brightly than the sun, it was whiter than any snow. 21 None of the angels was able to come in and see the face of the Excellent and the Glorious One; and no one of the flesh can see him - 22 the flaming fire was round about him, and a great fire stood before him. No one could come near unto him from among those that surrounded the tens of millions (that stood) before him. 23 He needed no council, but the most holy ones who are near to him neither go far away at night nor move away from him. 24 Until then I was prostrate on my face covered and trembling. And the Lord called me with his own mouth and said to me, "Come near to me, Enoch, and to my holy Word." 25 And he lifted me up and brought me near to the gate, but I (continued) to look down with my face.

Chapter 15

1 But he raised me up and said to me with his voice, "Enoch." I (then) heard, "Do not fear, Enoch, righteous man, scribe of righteousness; come near to me and hear my voice. 2 And tell the Watchers of heaven on whose behalf you have been sent to intercede: 'It is meet (for you) that you intercede on behalf of man, and not man on your behalf. 3 For what reason have you abandoned the high, holy, and eternal heaven; and slept with women and defiled yourselves with the daughters of the people, taking wives, acting like the children of the earth, and begetting giant sons? 4 Surely you, you [used to be] holy, spiritual, the living ones, [possessing] eternal life; but (now) you have defiled yourselves with women, and with the blood of the flesh begotten children, you have lusted with the blood of the people, like them producing blood and flesh, (which) die and perish. 5 On that account, I have given you wives in order that (seeds) might be sown upon them and children born by them, so that the deeds that are done upon the earth will not be withheld from you. 6 Indeed you, formerly you were spiritual, (having) eternal life, and immortal in all the generations of the world. That is why (formerly) I did not make wives for you, for the dwelling of the spiritual beings of heaven is heaven.'

8 "But now the giants who are born from the (union of) the spirits and the flesh shall be called evil spirits upon the earth, because their dwelling shall be upon the earth and inside the earth. 9 Evil spirits have come out of their bodies. Because from the day that they were created from the holy ones they became the Watchers; their first origin is the spiritual foundation. They will become evil upon the earth and shall be called evil spirits. 10 The dwelling of the spiritual beings of heaven is heaven; but the dwelling of the spirits of the earth, which are born upon the earth, is in the earth. 11 The spirits of the giants oppress each other; they will corrupt, fall, be excited, and fall upon the earth, and cause sorrow. They eat no food, nor become thirsty, nor find obstacles. 12 And these spirits shall rise up against the children of the people and against the women, because they have proceeded forth (from them).

Chapter 16

1 "From the days of the slaughter and destruction, and the death of the giants and the spiritual beings of the spirit, and the flesh, from which they have proceeded forth, which will corrupt without incurring judgment, they will corrupt until the day of the great conclusion, until the great age is consummated, until everything is concluded (upon) the Watchers and the wicked ones. 2 And so to the Watchers on whose behalf you have been sent to intercede - who were formerly in heaven - (say to them), 3 'You were (once) in heaven, but not all the mysteries (of heaven) are open to you, and you (only) know the rejected mysteries. Those ones you have broadcast to the women in the hardness of your hearts and by those mysteries the women and men multiply evil deeds upon the earth.' Tell them, 'Therefore, you will have no peace!'"

Enoch's Tour of the Earth and Sheol
The first journey

Chapter 17

1 And they lifted me up into one place where there were (the ones) like the flaming fire. And when they (so) desire they appear like men. 2 And they took me into a place of whirlwind in the mountain; the top of its summit was reaching into heaven. 3 And I saw chambers of light and thunder in the ultimate end of the depth toward (the place where) the bow, the arrow, and their quiver and a fiery sword and all the lightnings were. 4 And they lifted me up unto the waters of life, unto the occidental fire which receives every setting of the sun. 5 And I came to the river of fire which flows like water and empties itself into the great sea in the direction of the west. 6 And I saw all the great rivers and reached to the great darkness and went into the place where all flesh must walk cautiously. 7 And I saw the mountains of the dark storms of the rainy season and from where the waters of all the seas flow. 8 And saw the mouths of all the rivers of the earth and the mouth of the sea.

Chapter 18

1 1 And I saw the storerooms of all the winds and saw how with them he has embroidered all creation as well as the foundations of the earth. 2 I saw the cornerstone Sam of the earth; I saw the four winds which bear the earth as well as the firmament of heaven. 3 I saw how the winds ride the heights of heaven and stand between heaven and earth: These are the very pillars of heaven. 4 I saw the winds which turn the heaven and cause the star to set - the sun as well as all the stars. 5 I saw the souls carried by the clouds. I saw the path of the angels in the ultimate end of the earth, and the firmament of the heaven above. 6 And I kept moving in the direction of the west; and it was flaming day and night toward the seven mountains of precious stones - three toward the east and three toward the south. 7 As for those toward the east, they were of colored stones - one of pearl stone and one of healing stone; and as for those toward the south, they were of red stone. 8 The ones in the middle were pressing into heaven like the throne of God, which is of alabaster and whose summit is of sapphire; 9 and I saw a flaming fire. 10 0 And I saw what was inside those mountains - a place, beyond the great earth, where the heavens come together. 11 And I saw a deep pit with heavenly fire on its pillars; I saw inside them descending pillars of fire that were immeasurable (in respect to both) altitude and depth. 12 And on top of that pit I saw a place without the heavenly firmament above it or earthly foundation under it or water. There was nothing on it - not even birds - but it was a desolate and terrible place. 13 And I saw there the seven stars (which) were like great, burning mountains. 14 (Then) the angel said (to me), "This place is the (ultimate) end of heaven and earth; it is the prison house for the stars and the powers of heaven. 15 And the stars which roll over upon the fire, they are the ones which have transgressed the commandments of God from the beginning of their rising because they did not arrive punctually. 16 And he was wroth with them and bound them until the time of the completion of their sin in the year of mystery."

Chapter 19

1 And Uriel said to me, "Here shall stand in many different appearances the spirits of the angels which have united themselves with women. They have defiled the people and will lead them into error so that they will offer sacrifices to the demons as unto gods, until the great day of judgment in which they shall be judged till they are finished. 2 And their women whom the angels have led astray will be peaceful ones." 3 (So) I, Enoch, I saw the vision of the end of everything alone; and none among human beings will see as I have seen.

Names of archangels
Chapter 20

1 And these are names of the holy angels who watch: 2 Suru'el, one of the holy angels - for (he is) of eternity and of trembling. 3 Raphael, one of the holy angels, for (he is) of the spirits of man. 4 Raguel, one of the holy angels who take vengeance for the world and for the luminaries. 5 Michael, one of the holy angels, for (he is) obedient in his benevolence over the people and the nations. 6 Saraqa'el, one of the holy angels who are (set) over the spirits of mankind who sin in the spirit. 7 Gabriel, one of the holy angels who oversee the garden of Eden, and the serpents, and the cherubim.[8 Remiel, one of the holy angels, whom God set over those who rise. The names of the seven angels].

Enoch's second journey: preliminary and final place of punishment of fallen stars
Chapter 21

1 And I came to an empty place. 2 And I saw (there) neither a heaven above nor an earth below, but a chaotic and terrible place. 3 And there I saw seven stars of heaven bound together in it, like great mountains, and burning with fire. 4 At that moment I said, "For which sin are they bound, and for what reason were they cast in here." 5 Then one of the holy angels, Uriel, who was with me, guiding me, spoke to me and said to me, "Enoch, for what reason are you asking and for what reason do you question and exhibit eagerness? 6 These are among the stars of heaven which have transgressed the commandments of the Lord and are bound in this place until the completion of ten million years, (according) to the number of their sins." 7 I then proceeded from that area to another place which is even more terrible and saw a terrible thing: a great fire that was burning and flaming; the place had a cleavage (that extended) to the last sea, pouring out great pillars of fire; neither its extent nor its magnitude could I see nor was I able to estimate. 8 At that moment, what a terrible opening is this place and a pain to look at! 9 Then Ura'el, (one) of the holy angels who was with me, responded and said to me, "Enoch, why are you afraid like this?" (I answered and said), 10 "I am frightened because of this terrible place and the spectacle of this painful thing." And he said unto me, "This place is the prison house of the angels; they are detained here forever."

Chapter 22

1 Then went to another place, and he showed me on the west side a great and high mountain of hard rock 2 and inside it four beautiful corners; it had [in it] a deep, wide, and smooth (thing) which was rolling over; and it (the place) was deep and dark to look at. 3 At that moment, Rufael, one of the holy angels, who was with me, responded to me; and he said to me, "These beautiful corners (are here) in order that the spirits of the souls of the dead should assemble into them - they are created so that the souls of the children of the people should gather here. 4 They prepared these places in order to put them (i.e. the souls of the people) there until the day of their judgment and the appointed time of the great judgment upon them." 5 I saw the spirits of the children of the people who were dead, and their voices were reaching unto heaven until this very moment. 6 I asked Rufael, the angel who was with me, and said to him, "This spirit, the voice of which is reaching (into heaven) like this and is making suit, whose (spirit) is it?" 7 And he answered me, saying, "This is the spirit which had left Abel, whom Cain, his brother, had killed; it (continues to) sue him until all of (Cain's) seed is exterminated from the face of the earth, and his seed has disintegrated from among the seed of the people." 8 At that moment, I raised a question regarding him and regarding the judgment of all, "For what reason is one separated from the other?" 9 And he replied and said to me, "These three have been made in order that the spirits of the dead might be separated. And in the manner in which the souls of the righteous are separated (by) this spring of water with light upon it, 10 in like manner, the sinners are set apart when they die and are buried in the earth and judgment has not been executed upon them in their lifetime, 11 upon this great pain, until the great day of judgment - and to those who curse (there will be) plague and pain forever, and the retribution of their spirits. They will bind them there forever - even if from the beginning of the world. 12 And in this manner is a separation made for the souls of those who make the suit (and) those who disclose concerning destruction, as they were killed in the days of the sinners. 13 Such has been made for the souls of the people who are not righteous, but sinners and perfect criminals; they shall be together with (other) criminals who are like them, (whose) souls will not be killed on the day of judgment but will not rise from there." 14 At that moment I blessed the Lord of Glory and I said, "Blessed" be my Lord, the Lord of righteousness who rules forever."

The fire of the luminaries of heaven
Chapter 23

1 And from there I (departed and) went to another place in the direction of the west until the (extreme) ends of the earth. 2 And I saw a burning fire which was running without rest; and it did not diminish its speed night and day. 3 And I asked, saying, "What is this (thing) which has no rest?" 4 At that moment, Raguel, one of the holy angels, who was with me, answered me and said to me, "This (thing) which you saw is the course (of the fire) and this, the fire which is burning; the direction of the west, is the luminaries of heaven."

The seven mountains of the northwest and the tree of life
Chapter 24

1 From there I went to another place of the earth, and he showed me a mountain of fire which was flaming day and night. 2 And I went in its direction and saw seven dignified mountains - all different one from the other, of precious and beautiful stones, and all dignified and glorious in respect to their visualization and beautiful in respect to their facade - three in the direction of the east, one founded on the other, and three in the direction of the north, one upon the other, with deep and crooked ravines, each one (of which) is removed from the other. 3 The seven mountains were (situated) in the midst of these (ravines) and (in respect to) their heights all resembled the seat of a throne (which is) surrounded by fragrant trees. 4 And among them, there was one tree such as I have never at all smelled; there was not a single one among those or other (trees) which is like it; among all the fragrances nothing could be so fragrant; its leaves, its flowers, and its wood would never wither forever; its fruit is beautiful and resembles the clustered fruits of a palm tree. 5 At that moment I said, "This is a beautiful tree, beautiful to view, with leaves (so) handsome and blossoms (so) magnificent in appearance." 6 Then Michael, one of the holy and revered angels - he is their chief - who was with me, responded to me.

Chapter 25

1 And he said unto me, Enoch, "What is it that you are asking me concerning the fragrance of this tree and you are so inquisitive about?" 2 At that moment, answered, saying, "I am desirous of knowing everything, but specially about this thing." 3 He answered, saying, "This tall mountain which you saw whose summit resembles the throne of God is (indeed) his throne, on which the Holy and Great Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, will sit when he descends to visit the earth with goodness. 4 And as for this fragrant tree, not a single human being has the authority to touch it until the great judgment, when he shall take vengeance on all and conclude (everything) forever. 5 This is for the righteous and the pious. And the elect will be presented with its fruit for life. He will plant it in the direction of the northeast, upon the holy place - in the direction of the house of the Lord, the Eternal King.
6 Then they shall be glad and rejoice in gladness,
and they shall enter into the holy (place);
its fragrance shall (penetrate) their bones,
long life will they live on earth,
such as your fathers lived in their days."
At that moment, I blessed the God of Glory, the Eternal King, for he has prepared such things for the righteous people, as he had created (them) and given it to them.

Jerusalem and its surroundings
Chapter 26

1 And from there I went into the center of the earth and saw a blessed place, shaded with branches which live and bloom from a tree that was cut. 2 And there I saw a holy mountain; underneath the mountain, in the direction of the east, there was a stream which was flowing in the direction of the north. 3 And I saw in a second direction, (another) mountain which was higher than (the former). Between them was a deep and narrow valley. In the direction of the (latter) mountain ran a stream. 4 In the direction of the west from this one there was (yet) another mountain, smaller than it and not so high, with a valley under it, and between them besides, (another) valley which is deep and dry. 5 (The valleys) were narrow, (formed) of hard rocks and no tree growing on them. 6 And I marvelled at the mountain(s) and I marvelled at the valley(s): I marvelled very deeply.

The accursed valley
Chapter 27

1 At that moment, I said, "For what purpose does this blessed land, entirely filled with trees, (have) in its midst this accursed valley?" 2 Then, Uriel, one of the holy angels, who was with me, answered me and said to me, "This accursed valley is for those accursed forever; here will gather together all (those) accursed ones, those who speak with their mouth unbecoming words against the Lord and utter hard words concerning his glory. Here shall they be gathered together, and here shall be their judgment, in the last days. 3 There will be upon them the spectacle of the righteous judgment, in the presence of the righteous forever. The merciful will bless the Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, all the day. 4 In the days of the judgment of (the accursed), the (merciful) shall bless him for the mercy which he had bestowed upon them." At that moment, I blessed the Lord of Glory and gave him the praise that befits his glory.

Journey to the east
Chapter 28

1 And from there I went in the direction of the east into the center of the mountain of the desert; and I saw a wilderness and it was solitary, full of trees and seeds. 2 And there was a stream on top of it, and it gushed forth from above it. 3 It appeared like a waterfall which cascaded greatly as if toward the direction of west of the northeast; water and dew ascended from it all over.

Chapter 29

1 Then I went into another place in the desert; and I approached the easterly direction of this mountain. 2 And there I saw the tree of judgment (which has) the smell of rubbish; its tree looked like that of frankincense and myrrh.

Chapter 30

1 And beyond it - beyond those above the easterly mountains - it is not far. And I saw a place which is a valley of water that is endless. 2 And I saw a beautiful tree which resembles a tree whose fragrance is like that of mastic. 3 And in the direction of the sides of those valleys, I saw a fragrant cinnamon tree. And over these, I proceeded in the easterly direction.

Chapter 31

1 And I saw other mountains with trees in them. There flowed from them (the trees) something like nectar, called sarara and galbanum. 2 And over these mountains, I saw (yet) another mountain and in it there were aloe trees, and the whole forest was full of (trees) like sturdy almond trees. 3 And when one picks the fruit it gives the most pleasant odor.

Chapter 32

1 And after (experiencing) this fragrant odor, while looking toward the northeast over the mountains, I saw seven mountains full of excellent nard, fragrant trees, cinnamon trees, and pepper. 2 From there I went over the summits of the mountains, far toward the east of the earth. I (then) passed over the Erythraean Sea and went far from it, and passed over the head of angel Zutu'el. 3 And I came to the garden of righteousness and saw beyond those trees many (other) large (ones) growing there - their fragrance sweet, large ones, with much elegance, and glorious. And the tree of wisdom, of which one eats and knows great wisdom, (was among them). 4 It looked like the colors of the carob tree, its fruit like very beautiful grape clusters, and the fragrance of this tree travels and reaches afar. 5 And I said, "This tree is beautiful and its appearance beautiful and pleasant!" 6 Then the holy angel Raphael, who was with me, responded to me and said, "This very thing is the tree of wisdom from which your old father and aged mother, they who are your precursors, ate and came to know wisdom; and (consequently) their eyes were opened and they realized that they were naked and (so) they were expelled from the garden."

Chapter 33

1 And from there I went to the extreme ends of the earth and saw there huge beasts, each different from the other - and different birds (also) differing from one another in appearance, beauty, and voice. And to the east of those beasts, I saw the ultimate ends of the earth which rests on the heaven. 2 And the gates of heaven were open, and I saw how the stars of heaven come out; 3 and counted the gates out of which they exit and wrote down all their exits for each one: according to their numbers, their names, their ranks, their seats, their periods, their months, as Uriel, the holy angel who was with me, showed me. 4 He showed me all things and wrote them down for me - also in addition he wrote down their names, their laws, and their companies.

Journey to the north
Chapter 34

1 From there I went in the direction of the north, to the extreme ends of the earth, and there at the extreme end of the whole world I saw a great and glorious seat. 2 There (also) I saw three open gates of heaven; when it blows cold, hail, frost, snow, dew, and rain, through each one of the (gates) the winds proceed in the northwesterly direction. 3 Through one gate they blow good things; but when they blow with force through the two (other) gates, they blow violence and sorrow upon the earth.

Journey to the west
Chapter 35

1 And from there I went in the direction of the west to the extreme ends of the earth, and saw there three open gates of heaven, (just) like the one that I saw in the east in respect to the number of its exits.

Journey to the south
Chapter 36

1 And from there I went in the direction of the south to the extreme ends of the earth, and saw there three open gates of the heaven from where the south wind, dew, rain, and wind come forth. 2 From there went in the direction of the extreme ends of the heaven and saw there open gates of heaven, with small gates above them, in the direction of the east. 3 Through one of these small gates pass the stars of heaven and travel westward on the path which is shown to them. 4 And when I saw (this) I blessed - and I shall always bless - the Lord of Glory, who performed great and blessed miracles in order that he may manifest his great deeds to his angels, the winds, and to the people so that they might praise the effect of all his creation - so that they might see the effect of his power and praise him in respect to the great work of his hands and bless him forever.

BOOK II (37-71)

The Book of the Similitudes

Chapter 37

1 Book two: The vision which Enoch saw the second time - the vision of wisdom which Enoch, son of Jared, son of Mahalalel, son of Kenan, son of Enosh, son of Seth, son of Adam, saw: 2 This is the beginning of the words of wisdom which I commenced to propound, saying to those who dwell in the earth, "Listen, you first ones, and look, you last ones, the words of the Holy One, which teach before the Lord of the Spirits. 3 It is good to declare these words to those of former times, but one should not withhold the beginning of wisdom from those of latter days. 4 Until now such wisdom, which I have received as I recited (it) in accordance with the will of the Lord of the Spirits, had not been bestowed upon me before the face of the Lord of the Spirits. From him, the lot of eternal life has been given to me. 5 Three things were imparted to me"; and I began to recount them to those who dwell upon the earth.

Coming judgment of the wicked
Chapter 38

1 The first thing:

When the congregation of the righteous shall appear,
sinners shall be judged for their sins,
they shall be driven from the face of the earth,
2 and when the Righteous One shall appear before the face of the righteous,
those elect ones, their deeds are hung upon the Lord of the Spirits,
he shall reveal light to the righteous and the elect who dwell upon the earth,
where will the dwelling of the sinners be,
and where the resting place of those who denied the name of the Lord of the Spirits?
It would have been better for them not to have been born.
3 When the secrets of the Righteous One are revealed,
he shall judge the sinners; and the wicked ones will be driven from the presence of the righteous and the elect,
4 and from that time, those who possess the earth will neither be rulers nor princes,
they shall not be able to behold the faces of the holy ones,
for the light of the Lord of the Spirits has shined
upon the face of the holy, the righteous, and the elect.
5 At that moment, kings and rulers shall perish,
they shall be delivered into the hands of the righteous and holy ones,
6 and from thenceforth no one shall be able to induce the Lord of the Spirits to show them mercy,
for their life is annihilated.

The home of the righteous
Chapter 39

1 And it shall come to pass in those days that the children of the elect and the holy ones [will descend] from the high heaven and their seed will become one with the children of the people. 2 And in those days Enoch received the books of zeal and wrath as well as the books of haste and whirlwind. The Lord of the Spirits says that mercy shall not be upon them.

3 In those days, whirlwinds carried me off from the earth,
and set me down into the ultimate ends of the heavens.
4 There I saw other dwelling places of the holy ones and their resting places too.
5 So there my eyes saw their dwelling places with the holy angels, and their resting places with the holy ones,
and they interceded and petitioned and prayed on behalf of the children of the people,
and righteousness flowed before them like water,
and mercy like dew upon the earth,
and thus it is in their midst forever and ever. 6 And in those days my eyes saw the Elect One of righteousness and of faith,
and righteousness shall prevail in his days,
and the righteous and elect ones shall be without number before him forever and ever.
7 And I saw a dwelling place underneath the wings of the Lord of the Spirits;
and all the righteous and the elect before him shall be as intense as the light of fire.
Their mouth shall be full of blessing;
and their lips will praise the name of the Lord of the Spirits,
and righteousness before him will have no end;
and uprightness before him will not cease.
8 There (underneath his wings) I wanted to dwell;
and my soul desired that dwelling place.
Already my portion is there;
for thus has it been reserved for me before the Lord of the Spirits.

9 In those days, I praised and prayed to the name of the Lord of the Spirits with blessings and praises, for he had strengthened me by blessings and praises in accordance with the will of the Lord of the Spirits. 10 And I gazed at that place (under his wings), and I blessed and praised, saying, "Blessed is he, and may he be blessed, from the beginning and forever more. 11 There is no such thing as non-existence before him. (Even) before the world was created, he knows what is forever and what will be from generation to generation. 12 Those who do not slumber but stand before your glory, did bless you. They shall bless, praise, and extol (you), saying, 'Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord of the Spirits; the spirits fill the earth.' " 13 And at that place (under his wings) my eyes saw others who stood before him sleepless (and) blessed (him), saying, "Blessed are you and blessed is the name of the Lord of the Spirits forever and ever.'' And my face was changed on account of the fact that I could not withstand the sight.

The four angels
Chapter 40

1 And after that, I saw a hundred thousand times a hundred thousand, ten million times ten million, an innumerable and uncountable (multitude) who stand before the glory of the Lord of the Spirits. 2 I saw them standing - on the four wings of the Lord of the Spirits - and saw four other faces among those who do not slumber, and I came to know their names, which the angel who came with me revealed to me; and he (also) showed me all the hidden things. 3 (Then) I heard the voices of those four faces while they were saying praises before the Lord of Glory. 4 The first voice was blessing the name of the Lord of the Spirits. 5 The second voice I heard blessing the Elect One and the elect ones who are clinging onto the Lord of the Spirits. 6 And the third voice I heard interceding and praying on behalf of those who dwell upon the earth and supplicating in the name of the Lord of the Spirits. 7 And the fourth voice I heard expelling the demons and forbidding them from coming to the Lord of the Spirits in order to accuse those who dwell upon the earth. 8 And after that, I asked the angel of peace, who was going with me and showed me everything that was hidden, "Who are these four faces which have seen and whose voices I have heard and written down?" 9 And he said to me, "The first one is the merciful and forbearing Michael; the second one, who is set over all disease and every wound of the children of the people, is Raphael; the third, who is set over all exercise of strength, is Gabriel; and the fourth, who is set over all actions of repentance unto the hope of those who would inherit eternal life, is Phanuel by name." 10 (So) these are his four angels: they are of the Lord of the Spirits, and the four voices which I heard in those days.

The Lord of the Spirits, and the four voices which I heard in those days.
Chapter 41

1 And after that, I saw all the secrets in heaven, and how a kingdom breaks up, and how the actions of the people are weighed in the balance. 2 And there saw the dwelling place of the sinners and the company of the holy ones; and my eyes saw the sinners - those who deny the name of the Lord of the Spirits - being expelled from there and being dragged off; and they could not stand still because of the plague which proceeds forth from the Lord of the Spirits.

Cosmic secrets

3 And there my eyes saw the secrets of lightning and thunder, and the mysteries of the winds, how they are distributed in order to blow upon the earth, and the secrets of the clouds and the dew I saw there from where they proceed in that place and (how) from there they satiate the dust of the earth. 4 At that place, I (also) saw sealed storerooms from which the winds of the storerooms of hail and the winds of the storerooms of mist are distributed; and these clouds hover over the earth from the beginning of the world. 5 And I saw the storerooms of the sun and the moon, from what place they come out and to which place they return, and their glorious return - how in their travel one festival is celebrated more than the other. They do not depart from their orbit, neither increase nor decrease it; but they keep faith one with another: in accordance with an oath they set and they rise. 6 From the first is the sun; and it executes its course in accordance with the commandment of the Lord of the Spirits - his name shall persist forever and ever. 7 After that is found (both) the hidden and the visible path of the moon; and the path of its orbit it completes by day and by night at that place. And the two will gaze directly into the glory of the Lord of the Spirits. They give thanks, they praise, and they do not economize (on energy), for their very essence generates new power.

8 Surely the many changes of the sun have (both) a blessing and a curse,
and the course of the moon's path is light to the
righteous (on the one hand) and darkness to the sinners (on the other),
in the name of the Lord of the Spirits, who created the distinction between light and darkness
and separated the spirits of the people,
and strengthened the spirits of the righteous in the name of his righteousness.
9 Surely, neither an angel nor Satan has the power to hinder;
for there is a judge to all of them/
he will glance," and all of them are before him,
he is the judge.

The abode of Wisdom and Iniquity
Chapter 42

1 Wisdom could not find a place in which she could dwell;
but a place was found (for her) in the heavens.
Then Wisdom went out to dwell with the children of the people,
but she found no dwelling place.
(So) Wisdom returned to her place
and she settled permanently among the angels.
Then Iniquity went out of her rooms,
and found whom she did not expect.
And she dwelt with them,
like rain in a desert,
like dew on a thirsty land.

More secrets of the cosmos
Chapter 43

1 And I saw other lightnings and the stars of heaven. And I saw how he called them each by their (respective) names, and they obeyed him. 2 And saw the impartial scales for the purpose of balancing their lights at their widest areas. And their natures are as follows: Their revolutions produce lightning; and in number they are (as many as) the angels; they keep their faith each one according to their names. 3 And I asked the angel who was going with me and who had shown me the secret things, "What are these things?" 4 And he said to me, "The Lord of the Spirits has shown you the prototype of each one of them: These are the names of the holy ones who dwell upon the earth and believe in the name of the Lord of the Spirits forever and ever."

Chapter 44

1 And I saw another thing regarding lightning: how some stars arise and become lightning and cannot dwell with the rest.

Lot of unbelievers: new heaven and new earth
Chapter 45

This is the second parable concerning those who deny the name of the Lord of the Spirits and the congregation of the holy ones.

2 Neither will they ascend into heaven,
nor will they reach the ground;
such will be the lot of the sinners,
who will deny the name of the Lord of the Spirits,
those who in this manner will be preserved for the day of burden and tribulation.
3 On that day, my Elect One shall sit on the seat of glory
and make a selection of their deeds,
their resting places will be without number,
their souls shall be firm within them when they see my Elect One
those who have appealed to my glorious name.
4 On that day, I shall cause my Elect One to dwell among them,
I shall transform heaven and make it a blessing of light forever.
5 I shall (also) transform the earth and make it a blessing,
and cause my Elect One to dwell in her.
Then those who have committed sin and crime shall not set foot in her.
6 For in peace I have looked (with favor) upon my righteous ones and given them mercy,
and have caused them to dwell before me.
But sinners have come before me so that by judgment
I shall destroy them from before the face of the earth.

Chapter 46

1 At that place, I saw the One to whom belongs the time before time. And his head was white like wool, and there was with him another individual, whose face was like that of a human being. His countenance was full of grace like that of one among the holy angels. 2 And I asked the one - from among the angels - who was going with me, and who had revealed to me all the secrets regarding the One who was born of human beings, "Who is this, and from whence is he who is going as the prototype of the Before-Time?" 3 And he answered me and said to me, "This is the Son of Man, to whom belongs righteousness, and with whom righteousness dwells. And he will open all the hidden storerooms; for the Lord of the Spirits has chosen him, and he is destined to be victorious before the Lord of the Spirits in eternal uprightness. 4 This Son of Man whom you have seen is the One who would remove the kings and the mighty ones from their comfortable seats and the strong ones from their thrones. He shall loosen the reins of the strong and crush the teeth of the sinners. 5 He shall depose the kings from their thrones and kingdoms. For they do not extol and glorify him, and neither do they obey him, the source of their kingship. 6 The faces of the strong will be slapped and be filled with shame and gloom. Their dwelling places and their beds will be worms. They shall have no hope to rise from their beds, for they do not extol the name of the Lord of the Spirits. 7 And they have become the judges of the stars of heaven; they raise their hands (to reach) the Most High while walking upon the earth and dwelling in her. They manifest all their deeds in oppression; all their deeds are oppression. Their power (depends) upon their wealth. And their devotion is to the gods which they have fashioned with their own hands. But they deny the name of the Lord of the Spirits. 8 Yet they like to congregate in his houses and (with) the faithful ones who cling to the Lord of the Spirits.

Prayer of the righteous
Chapter 47

1 "In those days, the prayers of the righteous ascended into heaven, and the blood of the righteous from the earth before the Lord of the Spirits. 2 There shall be days when all the holy ones who dwell in the heavens above shall dwell (together). And with one voice, they shall supplicate and pray - glorifying, praising, and blessing the name of the Lord of the Spirits - on behalf of the blood of the righteous ones which has been shed. Their prayers shall not stop from exhaustion before the Lord of the Spirits - neither will they relax forever - (until) judgment is executed for them." 3 In those days, I saw him - the Antecedent of Time, while he was sitting upon the throne of his glory, and the books of the living ones were open before him. And all his power in heaven above and his escorts stood before him. 4 The hearts of the holy ones are filled with joy, because the number of the righteous has been offered, the prayers of the righteous ones have been heard, and the blood of the righteous has been admitted before the Lord of the Spirits.

The Son of Man: the Antecedent of Time: his judgment
Chapter 48

1 Furthermore, in that place I saw the fountain of righteousness, which does not become depleted and is surrounded completely by numerous fountains of wisdom. All the thirsty ones drink (of the water) and become filled with wisdom. (Then) their dwelling places become with the holy, righteous, and elect ones. 2 At that hour, that Son of Man was given a name, in the presence of the Lord of the Spirits, the Before-Time; 3 even before the creation of the sun and the moon, before the creation of the stars, he was given a name in the presence of the Lord of the Spirits. 4 He will become a staff for the righteous ones in order that they may lean on him and not fall. He is the light of the gentiles and he will become the hope of those who are sick in their hearts. 5 All those who dwell upon the earth shall fall and worship before him; they s shall glorify, bless, and sing the name of the Lord of the Spirits. 6 For this purpose he became the Chosen One; he was concealed in the presence of (the Lord of the Spirits) prior to the creation of the world, and for eternity. 7 And he has revealed the wisdom of the Lord of the Spirits to the righteous and the holy ones, for he has preserved the portion of the righteous because they have hated and despised this world of oppression (together with) all its ways of life and its habits in the name of the Lord of the Spirits; and because they will be saved in his name and it is his good pleasure that they have life. 8 In those days, the kings of the earth and the mighty landowners shall be humiliated on account of the deeds of their hands. Therefore, on the day of their misery and weariness, they will not be able to save themselves. 9 I shall deliver them into the hands of my elect ones like grass in the fire and like lead in the water, so they shall burn before the face of the holy ones and sink before their sight, and no place will be found for them. 10 On the day of their weariness, there shall be an obstacle on the earth and they shall fall on their faces; and they shall not rise up (again), nor anyone (be found) who will take them with his hands and raise them up. For they have denied the Lord of the Spirits and his Messiah. Blessed be the name of the Lord of the Spirits!

Wisdom and power of the Elect One
Chapter 49

1 So wisdom flows like water and glory is measureless before him forever and ever. 2 For his might is in all the mysteries of righteousness, and oppression will vanish like a shadow having no foundation. The Elect One stands before the Lord of the Spirits; his glory is forever and ever and his power is unto all generations. 3 In him dwells the spirit of wisdom, the spirit which gives thoughtfulness, the spirit of knowledge and strength, and the spirit of those who have fallen asleep in righteousness. 4 He shall judge the secret things. And no one will be able to utter vain words in his presence. For he is the Elect One before the Lord of the Spirits according to his good pleasure.

His mercy and his judgment
Chapter 50

1 In those days, there will be a change for the holy and the righteous ones and the light of days shall rest upon them; and glory and honor shall be given back to the holy ones, on the day of weariness. 2 He heaped evil upon the sinners; but the righteous ones shall be victorious in the name of the Lord of the Spirits. He will cause the others to see this so that they may repent and forsake the deeds of their hands. 3 There shall not be honor unto them in the name of the Lord of the Spirits. But through his name they shall be saved, and the Lord of the Spirits shall have mercy upon them, for his mercy is considerable. 4 He is righteous in his judgment and in the glory that is before him. Oppression cannot survive his judgment; and the unrepentant in his presence shall perish. 5 The Lord of the Spirits has said that from henceforth he will not have mercy on them.

Resurrection of the dead
Chapter 51

1 In those days, Sheol will return all the deposits which she had received and hell will give back all that which it owes. 2 And he shall choose the righteous and the holy ones from among (the risen dead), for the day when they shall be selected and saved has arrived. 3 In those days, (the Elect One) shall sit on my throne, and from the conscience of his mouth shall come out all the secrets of wisdom, for the Lord of the Spirits has given them to him and glorified him. 4 In those days, mountains shall dance like rams; and the hills shall leap like kids satiated with milk. And the faces of all the angels in heaven shall glow with joy, because on that day the Elect One has arisen. 5 And the earth shall rejoice; and the righteous ones shall dwell upon her and the elect ones shall walk upon her.

The metal mountains
Chapter 52

1 After those days, in the same place where I had seen all the secret visions, having been carried off in a wind vehicle and taken to the west, my eyes saw there all the secret things of heaven and the future things. 2 There were (there) a mountain of iron, a mountain of copper, a mountain of silver, a mountain of gold, a mountain of colored metal, and a mountain of lead. 3 And I asked the angel who was going with me, saying, "What are these things which I have seen in secret?" 4 And he said to me, "All these things which you have seen happen by the authority of his Messiah so that she may give orders and be praised upon the earth." 5 Then this angel of peace answered, saying to me, "Wait a little, and all secret things which encircle the Lord of the Spirits will be revealed unto you. 6 As for these mountains which you have seen with your own eyes - the mountain of iron, the mountain of copper, the mountain of silver, the mountain of gold, the mountain of colored metal, and the mountain of lead - all of them, in the presence of the Elect One, will become like a honeycomb (that melts) before fire, like water that gushes down from the top of such mountains, and become helpless by his feet. 7 It shall happen in those days that no one shall be saved either by gold or by silver; and no one shall be able to escape. 8 There shall be no iron for war, nor shall anyone wear a breastplate. Neither bronze nor tin shall be to any avail or be of any value; and there will be no need of lead whatsoever. 9 All these substances will be removed and destroyed from the surface of the earth when the Elect One shall appear before the face of the Lord of the Spirits."

The scene of judgment
Chapter 53

1 My eyes saw there a deep valley with a wide mouth. And all those who dwell upon the earth, the sea, and the islands shall bring to it gifts, presents, and tributes; yet this deep valley shall not become full. 2 They shall fulfill the criminal deeds of their hands and eat all the produce of crime which the sinners toil for. Sinners shall be destroyed from before the face of the Lord of the Spirits - they shall perish eternally, standing before the face of his earth. 3 So I saw all the angels of plague co-operating and preparing all the chains of Satan. 4 And I asked the angel of peace, who was going with me, "For whom are they preparing these chains?" 5 And he answered me, saying, "They are preparing these for the kings and the potentates of this earth in order that they may be destroyed thereby. 6 After this, the Righteous and Elect One will reveal the house of his congregation. From that time, they shall not be hindered in the name of the Lord of the Spirits. 7 And these mountains shall become (flat) like earth in the presence of his righteousness, and the hills shall become like a fountain of water. And the righteous ones shall have rest from the oppression of sinners."

Chapter 54

1 Then I looked and turned to another face of the earth and saw there a valley, deep and burning with fire. 2 And they were bringing kings and potentates and were throwing them into this deep valley. 3 And my eyes saw there their chains while they were making them into iron fetters of immense weight. 4 And I asked the angel of peace, who was going with me, saying, "For whom are these imprisonment chains being prepared?" 5 And he said unto me, "These are being prepared for the armies of Azaz'el, in order that they may take them and cast them into the abyss of complete condemnation, and as the Lord of the Spirits has commanded it, they shall cover their jaws with rocky stones. 6 Then Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, and Phanuel themselves shall seize them on that great day of judgment and cast them into the furnace (of fire) that is burning that day, so that the Lord of the Spirits may take vengeance on them on account of their oppressive deeds which (they performed) as messengers of Satan, leading astray those who dwell upon the earth."

The great judgment of the Flood

7 And in those days, the punishment of the Lord of the Spirits shall be carried out, and they shall open all the storerooms of water in the heavens above, in addition to the fountains of water which are on earth. 8 And all the waters shall be united with (all) other waters. That which is from the heavens above is masculine water, (whereas) that which is underneath the earth is feminine. 9 And they shall obliterate all those that dwell upon the earth as well as those that dwell underneath the ultimate ends of heaven. 10 On account of the fact that they did not recognize their oppressive deeds which they carried out on the earth, they shall be destroyed by (the Flood).

Chapter 55

1 And after that the Antecedent of Time repented and said, "In vain have I destroyed all those who dwell in the earth." 2 And he swore by his own great name that from thenceforth he would not do (as he had done) to all who live upon the earth. (And he said), "I shall put up a sign in the heavens, and it shall become a (symbol) of faith between me and them forever, so long as heaven is above the earth, which is in accordance with my command.

Final judgment of Azaz'el and the fallen angels

3 "When I would give consent so that they should be seized by the hands of the angels on the day of tribulation and pain, already I would have caused my punishment and my wrath to abide upon them - my punishment and my wrath," says the Lord of the Spirits. 4 "Kings, potentates, dwellers upon the earth: You would have to see my Elect One, how he sits in the throne of glory and judges Azaz'el and all his company, and his army, in the name of the Lord of the Spirits!"

Chapter 56

1 Then I saw there an army of the angels of punishment marching, holding nets of iron and bronze. 2 And I asked the angel of peace, who was walking with me, saying to him, "To whom are they going, these who are holding (the nets)?" 3 And he said to me, "(They are going) to their elect and beloved ones in order that they may be cast into the crevices of the abyss of the valley. 4 Then the valley shall be filled with their elect and beloved ones; and the epoch of their lives, the era of their glory, and the age of their leading (others) astray shall come to an end and shall not henceforth be reckoned.

The struggle of Israel with its enemies

5 "In those days, the angels will assemble and thrust themselves to the east at the Parthians and Medes. They will shake up the kings (so that) a spirit of unrest shall come upon them, and stir them up from their thrones; and they will break forth from their beds like lions and like hungry hyenas among their own flocks. 6 And they will go up and trample upon the land of my elect ones, and the land of my elect ones will be before them like a threshing floor or a highway. 7 But the city of my righteous ones will become an obstacle to their horses. And they shall begin to fight among themselves; and (by) their own right hands they shall prevail against themselves. A man shall not recognize his brother, nor a son his mother, until there shall be a (significant) number of corpses from among them. Their punishment is (indeed) not in vain. 8 In those days, Sheol shall open her mouth, and they shall be swallowed up into it and perish. (Thus) Sheol shall swallow up the sinners in the presence of the elect ones."

Chapter 57

1 And it happened afterward that I had another vision of a whole array of chariots loaded with people; and they were advancing upon the air from the east and from the west until midday. 2 And the sound of their chariots (was clamorous); and when this commotion took place, the holy ones in heaven took notice of it and the pillars of the earth were shaken from their foundations; and the sound (of the noise) could be heard from the extreme end of the sky unto the extreme end of the earth in one hour. 3 Then all shall fall down and worship the Lord of the Spirits. Here ends the second parable.

The eternal light of the righteous and elect ones
Chapter 58

1 And I began to speak another parable concerning the righteous and the elect: 2 Blessed are you, righteous and elect ones, for glorious is your portion. 3 The righteous ones shall be in the light of the sun and the elect ones in the light of eternal life which has no end, and the days of the life of the holy ones cannot be numbered. 4 They shall seek light and find righteousness with the Lord of the Spirits. Peace (be) to the righteous ones in the peace of the Eternal Lord! 5 After this, it shall be told to the holy ones in heaven that they should scrutinize the mysteries of righteousness, the gift of faith. For the sun has shined upon the earth and darkness is over. 6 There shall be a light that has no end, and they shall not have to count days (anymore). For already darkness has been destroyed, light shall be permanent before the Lord of the Spirits, and the light of uprightness shall stand firm forever and ever before the Lord of the Spirits.

The lightnings and the thunder
Chapter 59

1 In those days, my eyes saw the mysteries of lightnings, and of lights, and their judgments; they flash lights for a blessing or a curse, according to the will of the Lord of the Spirits. 2 And there I (also) saw the secrets of the thunder and the secrets of (how when) it resounds in the heights of heaven its voice is heard (in) the earthly dwellings. He showed me whether the sound of the thunder is for peace and blessing or for a curse, according to the word of the Lord of the Spirits. 3 After that, all the mysteries of the lights and lightnings were shown to me (that) they glow with light for blessing and for contentment.

Heavenly quake, the great monsters, and mysteries of nature
Chapter 60

1 In the year five hundred, in the seventh month, on the fourteenth day of the month in the life of Enoch; in the same parable (I saw) that the heaven of heavens was quaking and trembling with a mighty tremulous agitation, and the forces of the Most High and the angels, ten thousand times a million and ten million times ten million, were agitated with great agitation. 2 And the Antecedent of Time was sitting on the throne of his glory surrounded by the angels and the righteous ones. 3 (Then) a great trembling and fear seized me and my loins and kidneys lost control. So I fell upon my face. 4 Then Michael sent another angel from among the holy ones and he raised me up. And when he had raised me up, my spirit returned; for (I had fainted) because I could not withstand the sight of these forces and (because) heaven has stirred up and agitated itself. 5 Then Michael said unto me, "What have you seen that has so disturbed you? This day of mercy has lasted until today; and he has been merciful and long-suffering toward those that dwell upon the earth. 6 And when this day arrives - and the power, the punishment, and the judgment, which the Lord of the Spirits has prepared for those who do not worship the righteous judgment, for those who deny the righteous judgment, and for those who take his name in vain - it will become a day of covenant for the elect and inquisition for the sinners."

7 On that day, two monsters will be parted - one monster, a female named Leviathan, in order to dwell in the abyss of the ocean over the fountains of water; 8 and (the other), a male called Behemoth, which holds his chest in an invisible desert whose name is Dundayin, east of the garden of Eden, wherein the elect and the righteous ones dwell, wherein my grandfather was taken, the seventh from Adam, the first man whom the Lord of the Spirits created. 9 Then I asked the second angel in order that he may show me (how) strong these monsters are, how they were separated on this day and were cast, the one into the abysses of the ocean, and the other into the dry desert. 10 And he said to me, "You, son of man, according (to the degree) to which it will be permitted, you will know the hidden things."

11 Then the other angel who was going with me was showing me the hidden things: what is first and last in heaven, above it, beneath the earth, in the depth, in the extreme ends of heaven, the extent of heaven; 12 the storerooms of the winds, how the winds are divided, how they are weighed, how the winds divide and dissipate the openings of the winds, each according to the strength of its wind; the power of the light of the moon and how it is the right amount, the divisions of the stars, each according to its nomenclature, and all the subdivisions; 13 the thunders according to the places where they fall, and the subdivisions of the lightnings according to their flashing of light and the velocity of the obedience of the whole array of them. 14 So the thunders have their (respective) moments of rest with patience; and (each thunder) is marked by its (respective) sound. Neither the thunder nor the lightning becomes disjoined one from the other; both go together in a single breeze and do not part. 15 For when the lightning flashes light, the thunder utters its sound; also, at that moment, the wind causes (the thunder) to come to rest and divides equally (the time) between each one of them. For the reservoir of their moments (of thunderings) is like the sand, (so) each one of them is restrained with a bridle and turned back by the power of the wind and driven in this manner all over the numerous corners of the earth. 16 Now, the sea breeze is masculine and strong and according to the power of its strength it holds back (the air) and, in this manner, is driven and dispersed among all the mountains of the world. 17 The frost-wind is its own guardian and the hail-wind is a kind messenger. 18 The snow-wind has evacuated (its reservoir); it does not exist because of its strength; there is in it only a breeze that ascends from (the reservoir) like smoke, and its name is frost. 19 And the wind and the mist do not dwell together with them in their reservoirs. But (the mist) has its own reservoir, for its course is glorious. It has light and darkness both in the rainy season and the dry season; and its reservoir is itself an angel. 20 The dwelling place of the dew-breeze is in the extreme ends of heaven and is linked together with the reservoirs of the rain in (both) its courses of the rainy season and the dry season; also the clouds of (the dew) and the clouds of the mist are associated feeding each other mutually. 21 When the rain-wind becomes activated in its reservoir, the angels come and open the reservoir and let it out; and when it is sprayed over the whole earth, it becomes united with the water which is upon the earth; 22 and whensoever it unites with (other waters, it unites) with the water upon the earth which is for the use of those who dwell on the earth, for it is nourishment for the earth (sent) from the Most High in heaven. So in this manner there is a measuring system for the rain given to the angels. 23 All these things I saw as far as the garden of the righteous ones. 24 And the angel of peace who was with me said to me, "These two monsters are prepared for the great day of the Lord (when) they shall turn into food. 25 So that the punishment of the Lord of the Spirits should come down upon them in order that the punishment of the Lord of the Spirits should not be issued in vain but slay the children with their mothers, and the children with their fathers, when the punishment of the Lord of the Spirits comes down upon everyone. After that there shall be the judgment according to his mercy and his patience."

The measurement of the garden of Eden and the judgment and praise of the Elect One
Chapter 61

1 I saw in those days that long ropes were given to those angels; and hoisting up their own (respective) portions (of the ropes), they soared going in the direction of the northeast. 2 And I asked the angel, saying unto him, "Why have those (angels) hoisted these ropes and gone off?" And he said unto me, "They have gone in order to make measurements." 3 The angel who was going with me also said unto me, "These (angels) are the ones who shall bring the measuring ropes of the righteous ones as well as their binding cords in order that they might lean upon the name of the Lord of the Spirits forever and ever. Then the elect ones shall begin to walk with the elect ones. 4 These are the measurements which shall be given to faith and which shall strengthen righteousness. 5 And these measurements shall reveal all the secrets of the depths of the earth, those who have been destroyed in the desert, those who have been devoured by the wild beasts, and those who have been eaten by the fish of the sea. So that they all return and find hope in the day of the Elect One. For there is no one who perishes before the Lord of the Spirits, and no one who should perish. 6 And those who are in heaven above and all the powers received a command - one voice and one light like fire. 7 And him, the First Word, they shall bless, extol, and glorify with wisdom. They shall be wise in utterance in the spirit of life and in the Lord of the Spirits. 8 He placed the Elect One on the throne of glory; and he shall judge all the works of the holy ones in heaven above, weighing in the balance their deeds. 9 And when he shall lift up his countenance in order to judge the secret ways of theirs, by the word of the name of the Lord of the Spirits, and their conduct, by the method of the righteous judgment of the Lord of the Spirits, then they shall all speak with one voice, blessing, glorifying, extolling, sanctifying the name of the Lord of the Spirits. 10 And he will summon all the forces of the heavens, and all the holy ones above, and the forces of the Lord - the cherubim, seraphim, ophanim, all the angels of governance, the Elect One, and the other forces on earth (and) over the water. 11 On that day, they shall lift up in one voice, blessing, glorifying, and extolling in the spirit of faith, in the spirit of wisdom and patience, in the spirit of mercy, in the spirit of justice and peace, and in the spirit of generosity. They shall all say in one voice, 'Blessed (is he) and may the name of the Lord of the Spirits be blessed forever and evermore.' 12 All the vigilant ones in heaven above shall bless him; all the holy ones who are in heaven shall bless him; all the elect ones who dwell in the garden of life (shall bless him); every spirit of light that is capable of blessing, glorifying, extolling, and sanctifying your blessed name (shall bless him); and all flesh shall glorify and bless your name with an exceedingly limitless power forever and ever. 13 For the mercy of the Lord of the Spirits is great in quantity, and he is long-suffering. All his works and all the dimensions of his creation, he has revealed to the righteous and the elect ones in the name of the Lord of the Spirits."

Condemnation of the ruling class and blessedness of the righteous ones
Chapter 62

1 Thus the Lord commanded the kings, the governors, the high officials, and the landlords and said, "Open your eyes and lift up your eyebrows - if you are able to recognize the Elect One!" 2 The Lord of the Spirits has sat down on the throne of his glory, and the spirit of righteousness has been poured out upon him. The word of his mouth will do the sinners in; and all the oppressors shall be eliminated from before his face. 3 On the day of judgment, all the kings, the governors, the high officials, and the landlords shall see and recognize him - how he sits on the throne of his glory, and righteousness is judged before him, and that no nonsensical talk shall be uttered in his presence. 4 Then pain shall come upon them as on a woman in travail with birth pangs - when she is giving birth (the child) enters the mouth of the womb and she suffers from childbearing. 5 One half portion of them shall glance at the other half; they shall be terrified and dejected; and pain shall seize them when they see that Son of Man sitting on the throne of his glory. 6 (These) kings, governors, and all the landlords shall (try to) bless, glorify, extol him who rules over everything, him who has been concealed. 7 For the Son of Main was concealed from the beginning, and the Most High One preserved him in the presence of his power; then he revealed him to the holy and the elect ones. 8 The congregation of the holy ones shall be planted, and all the elect ones shall stand before him. 9 On that day, all the kings, the governors, the high officials, and those who rule the earth shall fall down before him on their faces, and worship and raise their hopes in that Son of Man; they shall beg and plead for mercy at his feet. 10 But the Lord of the Spirits himself will cause them to be frantic, so that they shall rush and depart from his presence. Their faces shall be filled with shame, and their countenances shall be crowned with darkness. 111 So he will deliver them to the angels for punishments in order that vengeance shall be executed on them - oppressors of his children and his elect ones. 12 It shall become quite a scene for my righteous and elect ones. They shall rejoice over (the kings, the governors, the high officials, and the landlords) because the wrath of the Lord of the Spirits shall rest upon them and his sword (shall obtain) from them a sacrifice. 13 The righteous and elect ones shall be saved on that day; and from thenceforth they shall never see the faces of the sinners and the oppressors. 14 The Lord of the Spirits will abide over is them; they shall eat and rest and rise with that Son of Man forever and ever. 15 The righteous and elect ones shall rise from the earth and shall cease being of downcast face. They shall wear the garments of glory. 16 These garments of yours shall become the garments of life from the Lord of the Spirits. Neither shall your garments wear out, nor your glory come to an end before the Lord of the Spirits.

The hopeless end of the kings, rulers, and landlords
Chapter 63

1 In those days, the governors and the kings who possess the land shall plead that he may give them a little breathing spell from the angels of his punishment to whom they have been delivered; so that they shall fall and worship before the Lord of the Spirits, and confess their sins before him. 2 They shall bless and glorify the Lord of the Spirits and say, "Blessed is the Lord of the Spirits - the Lord of kings, the Lord of rulers, and the Master of the rich - the Lord of glory and the Lord of wisdom. 3 Your power exposes every secret thing from generation to generation and your glory is forever and ever. Deep are all your mysteries - and numberless; and your righteousness is beyond accounting. 4 Now we have come to know that we should glorify and bless the Lord of kings - him who rules over all kings." 5 Moreover, they shall say, "Would that someone had given us a chance so that we should glorify, praise, and have faith before his glory! 6 6 This time, however, we are begging for a little rest but find it not; we pursue (it), but procure it not. Light has vanished from before us and darkness has become our habitation forever and ever; 7 because we have formerly neither had faith nor glorified the name of the Lord of the Spirits and kings, nor glorified the Lord in all his creation. We had put our hopes upon the scepters of our empires. 8 (Now) on the day of our hardship and our tribulation he is not saving us; and we have no chance to become believers. For our Lord is faithful in all his works, his judgments, and his righteousness; and his judgments have no respect of persons. 9 (So) we will vanish away from before his face on account of our deeds; and all our sins are consumed by righteousness." 10 Furthermore, at that time, you shall say, "Our souls are satiated with exploitation money which could not save us from being cast into the oppressive Sheol." 11 After that, their faces shall be filled with shame before that Son of Man; and from before his face they shall be driven out. And the sword shall abide in their midst, before his face. 12 Thus says the Lord of the Spirits, "This is the ordinance and the judgment, before the Lord of the Spirits, (prepared) for the governors, kings, high officials, and landlords."

The fallen angels
Chapter 64

1 Then I saw in that place other mysterious faces. 2 And I heard the voice of an angel saying, "These are the angels who descended upon the earth and revealed what was hidden to the children of the people, and led the children of the people astray to commit sin."

Enoch's predictions concerning the Deluge and himself
Chapter 65

1 In those days, Noah saw the earth, that she had become deformed, and that her destruction was at hand. 2 And (Noah) took off from there and went unto the extreme ends of the earth. And he cried out to his grandfather, Enoch, and said to him, three times, with a bitter voice, "Hear me! Hear me! Hear me!" 3 And I said unto him, "Tell me what this thing is which is being done upon the earth, for the earth is struggling in this manner and is being shaken; perhaps I will perish with her in the impact." 4 At that moment, there took place a tremendous turbulence upon the earth; and a voice from heaven was heard, and fell upon my face. 5 Then Enoch, my grandfather, came and stood by me, saying to me, "Why did you cry out so sorrowfully and with bitter tears?

6 "An order has been issued from the court of the Lord against those who dwell upon the earth, that their dooms has arrived because they have acquired the knowledge of all the secrets of the angels, all the oppressive deeds of the Satans, as well as all their most occult powers, all the powers of those who practice sorcery, all the powers of (those who mix) many colors, all the powers of those who make molten images; 7 how silver is produced from the dust of the earth, and how bronze is made upon the earth - 8 for lead and tin are produced from the earth like silver - their source is a fountain inside (which) stands an angel, and he is a running angel." 9 After that, my grandfather, Enoch, took hold of me by my hand and raised me up and said to me, "Go, for I have asked the Lord of the Spirits regarding this turbulence (which is taking place) on the earth." 10 He (continued to) say to me, "Because their oppression has been carried out (on the earth), their judgment will be limitless before me. On account of the abstract things which they have investigated and experienced, the earth shall perish (together with) those who dwell upon her. 11 And those (who taught them these things) will have no haven forever, because they have revealed to them the things which are secret - to the condemned ones; but, as for you, my son, the Lord of the Spirits knows that you are pure and kindhearted; you detest the secret things. 12 He has preserved your name for the holy ones; he will protect you from those who dwell upon the earth; he has preserved your righteous seed for kingship and great glory; and from your seed will emerge a fountain of the righteous and holy ones without number forever."

Angels in charge of the Flood
Chapter 66

1 After this he showed me the angels of punishment who are prepared to come and release all the powers of the waters which are underground to become judgment and destruction unto all who live and dwell upon the earth. 2 But the Lord of the Spirits gave an order to the angels who were on duty that they should not raise the (water) enclosures but guard (them) - for they were the angels who were in charge of the waters. Then I left from the presence of Enoch.

God's promise to Noah: punishment of the angels and kings
Chapter 67

1 In those days, the word of God came unto me, and said unto me, "Noah, your lot has come up before me - a lot without blame, a lot of true love. 2 At this time the angels are working with wood (making an ark) and when it is completed, I shall place my hands upon it and protect it, and the seed of life shall arise from it; and a substitute (generation) will come so that the earth will not remain empty (without inhabitants). 3 I shall strengthen your seed before me forever and ever as well as the seeds of those who dwell with you; I shall not put it to trial on the face of the earth; but it shall be blessed and multiply on the earth in the name of the Lord."

4 And they shall imprison those angels who revealed oppression in that burning valley which my grandfather Enoch had formerly shown me in the West among the mountains of gold, silver, iron, bronze, and tin. 5 I also saw that valley in which there took place a great turbulence and the stirring of the waters. 6 Now, when all this took place, there was produced from that bronze and fire a smell of sulfur (which) blended with those waters. 7 This valley of the perversive angels shall (continue to) burn punitively underneath that ground; in respect to its troughs, they shall be filled with rivers of water by which those angels who perverted those who dwell upon the earth shall be punished.

8 Those waters shall become in those days a poisonous drug of the body and a punishment of the spirit unto the kings, rulers, and exalted ones, and those who dwell on the earth; lust shall fill their souls so that their bodies shall be punished, for they have denied the Lord of the Spirits; they shall see their own punishment every day but cannot believe in his name. 9 In proportion to the great degree of the burning of their bodies will be the transmutation of their spirits forever and ever and ever, for there is none that can speak a nonsensical word before the Lord of the Spirits. 10 So the judgment shall come upon them, because they believe in the debauchery of their bodies and deny the spirit of the Lord. 11 And these waters will undergo change in those days; for (on the one hand) when those angels are being punished by these waters, the temperatures of those fountains of water will be altered (and become hot), but (on the other hand) when the angels get out, those waters of the fountains shall be transformed and become cold. 12 Then I heard Michael responding and saying, "This verdict by which the angels are being punished is itself a testimony to the kings and the rulers who control the world." 13 For these waters of judgment are poison to the bodies of the angels as well as sensational to their flesh; (hence) they will neither see nor believe that these waters become transformed and become a fire that burns forever.

The angel Michael discusses the judgment with Raphael
Chapter 68

1 After that, he gave me instructions" in all the secret things (found) in the book of my grandfather, Enoch, and in the parables which were given to him; and he put them together for me in the words of the book which is with me. 2 On that day, Michael addressed himself to Raphael, saying to him, "The power of the spirit grabs me and causes me to go upon account of the severity of the judgment concerning (the knowledge of) the secrets. Who is able to endure the severity of the judgment which has been executed and before which one melts away?" 3 Michael continued to speak further, saying to Raphael, "Who is he whose heart does not become sordid in respect to this matter and whose reins do not become stirred up from the word of the judgment which has been pronounced against them." 4 Then it happened that when they stood before the Lord of the Spirits, Michael said to Raphael thus, "They shall not prosper before the eye of the Lord; for they have quarreled with the Lord of the Spirits because they make the image of the Lord. 5 Therefore, all that which has been concealed shall come upon them forever and ever; for neither an angel nor a man should be assigned his role; (so) those (evil ones) alone have received their judgment forever and ever."

Names and misdeeds of the fallen angels
Chapter 69

1 After this judgment, they shall frighten them and make them scream because they have shown this (knowledge of secret things) to those who dwell on the earth. 2 Now behold, I am naming the names of those angels! These are their names: The first of them is Semyaz, the second Aristaqis, the third Armen, the fourth Kokba'el, the fifth Tur'el, the sixth Runnyal, the seventh Danyul, the eighth Neqa'el, the ninth Baraqel, the tenth Azaz'el, the eleventh Armaros, the twelfth Betryal, the thirteenth Basas'el, the fourteenth Hanan'el, the fifteenth Tur'el, the sixteenth Sipwese'el, (the seventeenth Yeter'el), the eighteenth Tuma'el, the nineteenth Tur'el, the twentieth Rum'el, and the twenty-first Azaz'el. 3 These are the chiefs of their angels, their names, their centurions, their chiefs over fifties, and their chiefs over tens.

4 The name of the first is Yeqon; he is the one who misled all the children of the angels, brought them down upon the earth, and perverted them by the daughters of the people. 5 The second was named Asb'el; he is the one who gave the children of the holy angels an evil counsel and misled them so that they would defile their bodies by the daughters of the people. 6 The third was named Gader'el; this one is he who showed the children of the people all the blows of death, who misled Eve, who showed the children of the people (how to make) the instruments of death (such as) the shield, the breastplate, and the sword for warfare, and all (the other) instruments of death to the children of the people. 7 Through their agency (death) proceeds against the people who dwell upon the earth, from that day forevermore. 8 The fourth is named Pinem'e; this one demonstrated to the children of the people the bitter and the sweet and revealed to them all the secrets of their wisdom. 9 Furthermore he caused the people to penetrate (the secret of) writing and (the use of) ink and paper; on account of this matter, there are many who have erred from eternity to eternity, until this very day. 10 For human beings are not created for such purposes to take up their beliefs with pen and ink. 11 For indeed human beings were not created but to be like angels, permanently to maintain pure and righteous lives. Death, which destroys everything, would have not touched them, had it not been through their knowledge by which they shall perish; death is (now) eating us by means of this power. 12 The fifth is named Kasadya; it is he who revealed to the children of the people (the various) flagellations of all evil - (the flagellation) of the souls and the demons, the smashing of the embryo in the womb so that it may be crushed, the flagellation of the soul, snake bites, sunstrokes, the son of the serpent, whose name is Taba'ta. 13 And this is the number of Kasb'el, the chief (executor) of the oath which he revealed to the holy ones while he was (still) dwelling in the highest in glory. 14 His name was (then) Beqa; and he spoke to Michael to disclose to him his secret name so that he would memorize this secret name of his, so that he would call it up in an oath in order that they shall tremble before it and is the oath. 15 He (then) revealed these to the children of the people, (and) all the hidden things and this power of this oath, for it is power and strength itself. The Evil One placed this oath in Michael's hand.

16 These are the secrets of this oath - and they are sustained by the oath;

The heaven was suspended before the creation of the world; and forever!
17 By it the earth is founded upon the water; from the hidden places of the mountains come beautiful waters, from the beginning of creation;
and forever!
18 By that oath, the sea was created;
and he put down for it a foundation of sand which cannot be transgressed at a time of its anger, from the beginning of creation;
and forever!
19 And by that oath the depths are made firm;
they stand still and do not move from their places from the beginning (of creation);
and forever!
20 By the same oath the sun and the moon complete their courses of travel, and do not deviate from the laws (made) for them, from the beginning (of creation);
and forever!
21 And by the same oath the stars complete their courses of travel;
if they call their names, he causes them to respond from the beginning (of creation);
and forever!
22 Likewise the waters and their souls, all thee winds and their paths of travel from all the directions of winds; 23 the voice of the thunder and the light of the lightning are kept there;
24 the reservoirs of hail, the reservoirs of frost, the reservoirs of mist, the reservoirs of rain and dew are kept there;
25 All these believe and give thanks in the presence of the Lord of the Spirits;
they glorify with all their might, and please him in all this thanksgiving;
they shall thank, glorify, exalt the Lord of the Spirits forever and ever!

26 This oath has become dominant over them; they are preserved by it and their paths are preserved by it (so that) their courses of travel do not perish.

27 (Then) there came to them a great joy. And they blessed, glorified, and extolled (the Lord) on account of the fact that the name of that (Son of) Man was revealed to them. He shall never pass away or perish from before the face of the earth. 28 But those who have led the world astray shall be bound with chains; and their ruinous congregation shall be imprisoned; all their deeds shall vanish from before the face of the earth. 29 Thenceforth nothing that is corruptible shall be found; for that Son of Man has appeared and has seated himself upon the throne of his glory; and all evil shall disappear from before his face; he shall go and tell to that Son of Man, and he shall be strong before the Lord of the Spirits. Here ends the third parable of Enoch.

Translation of Enoch and vision of earliest human ancestors
Chapter 70

1 And it happened after this that his living name was raised up before that Son of Man and to the Lord from among those who dwell upon the earth; 2 it was lifted up in a wind chariot and it disappeared from among them. 3 From that day on, I was not counted among them. But he placed me between two winds, between the northeast and the west, where the angels took a cord to measure for me the place for the elect and righteous ones. 4 And there I saw the first (human) ancestors and the righteous ones of old, dwelling in that place.

Vision of the fiery house and the Antecedent of Days
Chapter 71

1 (Thus) it happened after this that my spirit passed out of sight and ascended into the heavens. And I saw the sons of the holy angels walking upon the flame of fire; their garments were white - and their overcoats - and the light of their faces was like snow. 2 Also I saw two rivers of fire, the light of which fire was shining like hyacinth. Then I fell upon my face before the Lord of the Spirits. 3 And the angel Michael, one of the archangels, seizing me by my right hand and lifting me up, led me out into all the secrets of mercy; and he showed me all the secrets of righteousness. 4 He also showed me all the secrets of the extreme ends of heaven and all the reservoirs of the stars and the luminaries - from where they come out (to shine) before the faces of the holy ones. 5 He carried off my spirit, and I, Enoch, was in the heaven of heavens. There I saw - in the midst of that light - a structure built of crystals; and between those crystals tongues of living fire. 6 And my spirit saw a ring which encircled this structure of fire. On its four sides were rivers full of living fire which encircled it. 7 Moreover, seraphim, cherubim, and ophanim - the sleepless ones who guard the throne of his glory - also encircled it. 8 And I saw countless angels - a hundred thousand times a hundred thousand, ten million times ten million - encircling that house. Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, Phanuel, and numerous (other) holy angels that are in heaven above, go in and out of that house - 9 Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, Phanuel, and numerous (other) holy angels that are countless. 10 With them is the Antecedent of Time: His head is white and pure like wool and his garment is indescribable. 11 I fell on my face, my whole body mollified and my spirit transformed. Then I cried with a great voice by the spirit of the power, blessing, glorifying, and extolling. 12 And those are the blessings which went forth out of my mouth, being well-pleasing in the presence of that Antecedent of Time. 13 Then the Antecedent of Time came with Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Phanuel, and a hundred thousand and ten million times a hundred thousand angels that are countless. 14 Then an angel came to me and greeted me and said to me, "You, son of man, who art born in righteousness and upon whom righteousness has dwelt, the righteousness of the Antecedent of Time will not forsake you." 15 He added and said to me, "He shall proclaim peace to you in the name of the world that is to become. For from here proceeds peace since the creation of the world, and so it shall be unto you forever and ever and ever. 16 Everyone that will come to exist and walk shall (follow) your path, since righteousness never forsakes you. Together with you shall be their dwelling places; and together with you shall be their portion. They shall not be separated from you forever and ever and ever." 17 So there shall be length of days with that Son of Man, and peace to the righteous ones; his path is upright for the righteous, in the name of the Lord of the Spirits forever and ever.

BOOK III (72-82)

The Book of Heavenly Luminaries

The sun
Chapter 72

(Book) Three: 1 The Book of the Itinerary of the Luminaries of Heaven: the position of each and every one, in respect to their ranks, in respect to their authorities, and in respect to their seasons; each one according to their names and their places of origin and according to their months, which Uriel, the holy angel who was with me, and who (also) is their guide, showed me - just as he showed me all their treatises and the nature of the years of the world unto eternity, till the new creation which abides forever is created.

2 This is the first commandment of the luminaries: The sun is a luminary whose egress is an opening of heaven, which is (located) in the direction of the east, and whose ingress is (another) opening of heaven, (located) in the west. 3 I saw six openings through which the sun rises and six openings through which it sets. The moon also rises and sets through the same openings, and they are guided by the stars; together with those whom they lead, they are six in the east and six in the west heaven. All of them (are arranged) one after another in a constant order. There are many windows (both) to the left and the right of these openings. 4 First there goes out the great light whose name is the sun; its roundness is like the roundness of the sky; and it is totally filled with light and heat. 5 The chariot on which it ascends is (driven by) the blowing wind. The sun sets in the sky (in the west) and returns by the northeast in order to go to the east; it is guided so that it shall reach the eastern gate and shine in the face of the sky. 6 In this manner it rises in the first month through the major gate; it proceeds (through this gate) which is the fourth (among) those six openings which are (located) in the direction of the east. 7 By this fourth gate through which the sun rises during the first month there are twelve open windows from which a flame flows, when they are opened at the appropriate time. 8 When (the sun) rises (in the east) in the sky, it goes out through this fourth gate for thirty mornings and descends faithfully through the fourth gate in the western sky. 9 During those (thirty) days the day daily becomes longer and the night nightly shorter, for thirty days. 10 On that day, the day is longer than the night by one ninth; so the day turns out to be exactly ten parts and the night to be eight parts. 11 The sun rises from that fourth (eastern) gate and sets in the fourth (western) one, and then it turns and comes into the fifth gate of the east for thirty days, through which it rises, and sets in the fifth gate. 12 At that time the day further becomes longer and becomes eleven parts and the night shortens and becomes seven parts on account of the sun. 13 It then returns to the east and comes into the sixth (gate), rising and setting through that sixth gate for thirty-one days, according to the principle of (the gate). 14 On that day the day becomes longer than the night still further; so the day becomes twelve parts and the night shortens and becomes six parts. 15 Then the sun is raised in such a way that (its duration) shortens and night occurs; the sun returns to the east and enters the sixth gate, rising and setting through is it for thirty days. 16 When thirty days are completed, the day decreases exactly by one part, and becomes eleven parts, and the night seven. 17 Then the sun, leaving the west by that sixth gate and going to the east, rises through the fifth gate for thirty is mornings and sets again in the fifth gate in the west. 18 On that day the day decreases by two parts; so (the day) becomes ten parts and the night eight parts. 19 Then the sun, departing from that fifth gate and setting in the fifth gate, in the west, rises in the fourth gate for thirty-one days according to the principle of (the gate), and sets in the west. 20 On that day the day is aligned with the night, so that they become equal; so the night becomes nine parts and the day nine parts. 21 Then the sun, departing from that gate and setting in the west, returns to the east and comes out through the third gate for thirty days, and sets in the third gate in the west. 22 On that day the night becomes longer than the day; it becomes longer than the (previous) night and the day becomes shorter than the (previous) day for thirty day; so the night turns out to be exactly ten parts and the day to be eight parts. 23 Then the sun, departing from that third gate in the west and returning to the east, comes out through the second gate in the east for thirty days, and in the same manner it sets through the second gate in the western sky. 24 On that day the night becomes eleven parts and the day seven parts. 25 Then the sun, departing on that day from that second gate and setting in the west in the second gate, returns to the east and rises in the first gate for thirty-one days, and sets on that day in the western sky. 26 On that day the night lengthens and becomes twelve parts, whereas the day (shortens and becomes) six parts. 27 Thus the sun completes its appearances, and goes through those same cycles of appearances a second time, coming out through all the openings for thirty days and setting also in the west opposite to it. 28 On that night the length of the night decreases by one ninth; so the night becomes eleven parts and the day seven parts. 29 Then the sun, returning and entering the second gate which is in the east, resumes its appearances for thirty mornings, rising and setting (as usual). 30 On that day the night becomes shorter, so the night becomes ten parts and the day eight parts. 31 On that day the sun, departing from this second gate and setting in the west, returns to the east and rises through the third gate for thirty-one days, and sets in the western sky. 32 On that day the night shortens and becomes nine parts and the day nine parts. Then the night becomes equal with the day, and the days (of the year) add up to exactly three hundred sixty-four days. 33 The lengths of the day and the night as well as the shortnesses of the day and the night are (determined) by (the course of) the circuit of the sun, and distinguished by it. 34 The circuit becomes longer or shorter day by day and night by night (respectively). 35 Thus this is the order for the course of the movement and the settlement of the sun - that great luminary which is called the sun, for the duration of the year(s) of the universe - in respect to its going in and coming out. 36 It is that very (luminary) which manifests itself in its appearance as God has commanded that it shall come out and go in, in this manner. And neither does it diminish (in respect to its brightness) nor take rest but continue to run day and night. As for the intensity of its light, it is sevenfold brighter than that of the moon; nevertheless, (the sun and the moon) are equal in regard to their (respective) size.

The moon and the varying amounts of its illuminations
Chapter 73

1 After I saw this (set of) regulation(s for the sun) I saw another (set of) regulation(s) concerning the minor luminary whose name is moon. 2 Its roundness is like the roundness of the sky, and the wind drives the chariot on which it rides; and it is given light in (varying) measure. 3 Its coming out and its going in change every month. Its days are like the days of the sun; and when its light becomes evenly (distributed) then it amounts to one seventh of the light of the sun. 4 It (the moon) rises in this manner: Its head faces the easterly direction, coming out on the thirtieth day, on that day, (that is,) on the thirtieth day, it comes into existence, and it appears with the sun in the gate through which the sun exits; and you have the beginning of the month. 5 (Considering) half of it to be (divisible into) seven parts, the whole disk of it is without light, with the exception of one-seventh part of the fourteenth part of the light (of the sun), one seventh of its (half) light. 6 On the day when it receives one seventh part of its one half, as the sun sets, it becomes (equivalent to) one-seventh light of one half of it. 7 Then when the sun rises, the moon rises together with it, taking a portion of one half of its light; that night (the moon), just beginning its monthly journey on its first lunar day, sets with the sun and becomes dark, in respect to its thirteen parts that night. On that day it rises and shines with exactly one-seventh part (of its semicircle). 8 Then it comes out and recedes toward the east (away from) where the sun rises, (continuing) to be bright(er) in one sixth of one seventh (of one half of the light of the sun) during the remaining days.

Chapter 74

1 Furthermore, I saw another system of rotation with its own regulation whereby the system fulfills its monthly course of movement. 2 All these things - including their fixed positions - Uriel, the holy angel who is the guide of all of them, showed to me. And I wrote down their fixed positions as he showed them to me; and I wrote down their months as they were, as well as the (variable) aspects of their illumination until the completion of fifteen days. 3 The moon wanes in fifteen steps during a period of fifteen days, and waxes in fourteen steps in the east and the west respectively. 4 In (certain) designated months it alters its (westerly) settings and in (certain) designated months it fulfills its unusual courses of movement. 5 For two months it (the moon) sets with the sun, and uses those two middle openings (which are) the third and the fourth gate. 6 It comes out for seven days and completes a circuit as it returns again to the gate through which the sun rises. In this manner it waxes and recedes from the sun, entering the sixth gate through which the sun rises in eight days. 7 When the sun rises through the fourth gate (the moon) comes out for seven days, until it starts coming out through the fifth. It then turns back toward the fourth gate in seven days, waxing as it recedes, and enters the first gate in eight days. 8 Then again it returns to the fourth gate through which the sun rises in seven days. 9 This is how I saw their fixed positions - how the moon rises and shines when the sun sets - in those days, 10 If five years are combined the sun gains thirty extra days; consequently one of those five years gains, and when it is completed, it turns out to be three hundred sixty-four days. 11 The gain of the sun and of the stars turns out to be six days; in five years, six days every year add up to thirty days; and the moon falls behind the sun and the stars for thirty days. 12 They bring about all the years punctiliously, so that they forever neither gain upon nor fall behind their fixed positions for a single day, but they convert the year with punctilious justice into three hundred sixty-four days. 13 In three (years) there are one thousand ninety-two days and in five years one thousand eight hundred and twenty days, so that in eight years there are two thousand nine hundred and twelve days. 14 For the moon singly in three (years) its days add up to one thousand thirty days, so that it falls behind by sixty-two days in three years. 15 In five years (they add up to) one thousand eight hundred seventy days, so that it falls behind by fifty days in five years. Thus it is for the moon. 16 In eight years the days (add up to) two thousand eight hundred thirty-two days, so that it falls behind by eight days in eight years. 17 (In this way) the years are completed with precision, in accordance with their fixed positions in the universe and the fixed stations of the sun which shine, the gate through which it (the sun) rises and sets for thirty days.

Chapter 75

1 The leaders of the chiefs of the thousands, which are appointed over the whole creation and upon all the stars, are counted together with the four (leaders of the seasons); they do not leave from the fixed stations according to the reckoning of the year; and they render service on the four days which are not counted in the reckoning of the year. 2 On this account, people err in them, for those luminaries scrupulously render service to the fixed positions in the cosmos - one in the first gate of heaven, one in the third, one in the fourth, one in the fifth, and one in the sixth. In this manner the year is completed scrupulously in three hundred sixty-four fixed stations of the cosmos. 3 Thus the signs, the durations of time, the years, and the days were shown to me (by) the angel Uriel, whom the Lord, God of eternal glory, has appointed over all the luminaries of heaven - (both) in heaven and the world - in order that they - the sun, the moon, the stars, and all the created objects which circulate in all the chariots of heaven- should rule in the face of the sky and be seen on the earth to be guides for the day and the nights. 4 Likewise Uriel showed me twelve wide openings in the sky, along the course of the chariots of the sun, from which the rays of the sun break out and from which heat is diffused upon the earth, when they are opened during the designated seasons. 5 Their openings (affect) the winds and the spirit of the dew, 6 (that is) when the twelve wide openings are opened in the sky, in the extreme ends of the earth, through which (also) the sun, the moon, the stars, and all the (other) heavenly objects come out in the west. 7 There are many open windows to the left and the right, but one window produces the heat at its designated time in the manner of those openings through which the stars rise in accordance with their orders and set according to their numbers. 8 I also saw chariots in heaven running in the universe above those openings in which the stars that do not set revolve. 9 One (circuit) is larger than the rest of them all, and it circles the entire cosmos at the extreme ends of the earth.

The twelve winds and their gates
Chapter 76

1 And I saw the twelve wide openings in all the directions through which the winds come out and blow over the earth. 2 Three of them are open in the forefront of the sky, three in the west, three in the right of the sky, and three on the left; 3 (in other words) the first three are those on the morning side (followed by) three in the direction of the north; the last three are those on the left, in the direction of the south (followed by) three in the west. 4 Through four of the (openings) blow out winds of blessing (and) through eight of them blow out winds of pestilence - when they are sent in order to destroy the whole earth, the water upon her, all those who dwell upon her, and all those which exist in the waters and the dry land.

5 The first (group of) winds goes out from those openings called the easterly. Out of the first gate, which is in the direction of the east and inclines toward the south, proceed extirpation, drought, pestilence, and destruction. 6 Out of the second gate, (located) directly in the center, proceed rain and fruitfulness together with dew. Out of the third gate, which is in the direction of the northeast, proceed (both) cold and drought.

7 After these winds, there go out the southerly ones through three gates. Among these, out of the first gate, which inclines in the direction of the east, proceed the winds of heat. 8 Out of the central gate, which is next to it, proceed beautiful fragrance, dew, rain, peace, and life. 9 And out of the third gate, in the direction of the west, proceed dew, rain, young locusts, and desolation.

10 After these, there goes (the group) of the northerly winds whose name is the Sea. There proceed from the seventh gate, which is in the direction of the east, toward the south, dew, rain, young locusts, and desolation. 11 Out of the central gate proceed life, rain, and dew directly; and out of the third gate, which is in the direction of the west, which inclines toward the northeast, proceed cloud, frost, snow, rain, dew, and young locusts.

12 After these come the fourth (group) of winds - the westerly. Out of the first gate, which is in the northeasterly direction, proceed dew, frost, cold, snow, and hoarfrost. 13 Out of the central gate proceed dew, rain, peace, and blessing. And out of the last gate, which is in the direction of the south, proceed drought, desolation, burning, and destruction. 14 Thus the twelve openings of the four heavenly directions are completed; all their orders, all their evil effects, and all their beneficial effects have I revealed to you, (O) my son, Methuselah!

The four directions, the seven mountains, the seven rivers
Chapter 77

1 The first direction is called the Orient, because it is the very first. 2 The second is called the South, because the Most High will descend there, indeed because the Eternally Blessed will descend there. 3 (The third) direction is the Occident, its name (means) the diminished, (because) there all the luminaries of the sky wane and descend. 4 The fourth direction, whose name is the North, is divided into three parts: One of them is the dwelling of human beings; the second the seas of water, lakes, forests, rivers, darkness, and clouds; and the third part the garden of righteousness.

5 I saw seven high mountains which were higher than all the mountains of the earth; out of them proceeds frost; and days and year(s) traverse (them) in due season. 6 I saw seven rivers upon the earth, larger than all the rivers; one of them emerges from the West and empties its water into the Great Sea. 7 Two (others) come from the Northeast to the sea and empty their water into the Erythraean Sea, in the East. 8 The four remaining ones come out of the side of the Northeast to their own (respective) seas - (two of them) to the Erythraean Sea and two of them to the Great Sea, pouring themselves therein; some say to the seventh desert. 9 I (also) saw big islands in the sea and the land - seventy-two in the Erythraean Sea.

Names of the sun and the moon; waxing and waning of the moon
Chapter 78

1 These are the names of the sun: the first, Oryares and the second, Tomas. 2 The moon has four names: Its first name is Asenya; its second, 'Abla; the third, Banase; and the fourth, 'Era. 2 These are the two great luminaries. Their roundness is like the roundness of the sky; and the magnitude of their roundness is equivalent for both. 4 There are seven (more) portions of light that move in the sun's sphere than in the moon's and it increases in measure until seventy portions of the sun are completed. 5 The (moon) comes in and goes out by the western openings, and circles via the northeast and rises through the eastern openings upon the face of the earth. 6 When the moon (begins its cycle), it appears in the sky one half of a seventh part; it will become fully illumined from the fourteenth (day); 7 it completes its illumination the fifteenth, becoming fulfilled according to the sign of the year and becoming fifteen parts. Thus the moon waxes in fifteen parts. 8 In its waning, (the moon) decreases on the first day to fourteen parts of its light; on the second day, it decreases to thirteen parts of light; on the third, to twelve parts; on the fourth, to eleven parts; on the fifth, to ten parts; on the sixth, to nine parts; on the seventh, to eight parts; on the eighth, to seven parts; on the ninth, to six parts; on the tenth, to five parts; on the eleventh, to four parts; on the twelfth, to three parts; on the thirteenth, to one half (of the preceding); on the fourteenth, all its light decreases to one half of one seventh; and on the fifteenth, all the remaining (light) disappears. 9 In certain fixed months, the moon completes its cycle every twenty-nine days, (in certain others), every twenty- eight. 10 Then Uriel showed me another order (concerning) when light is beamed into the moon, from which (direction) of the bright sun it is beamed. 11 During all the seasons when the moon is made to run its cycle, the light is being beamed into it (the moon) facing the sun until the illumination (of the moon) is completed in the course of fourteen days; and when it is lit completely, it radiates light in the sky. 12 On the first day, it is called the new moon because on that day the illumination begins to set upon it. 13 These (illuminations) are completed with exactitude on the day when the sun descends into the west, and the moon (simultaneously) rises in the east in the evening, shining during the night until the sun rises opposite it, and it is over against the sun. 14 From the same side where light entered the moon, from there also it (gradually) wanes until all the illumination disappears and the days of the moon expire, its disk empty without light.

15 (The moon) coordinates, in respect to its days and seasons, (four) three-month (divisions). In the course of its recession it makes (three months each in thirty days) and three months each in twenty-nine days; during this season it makes its recession, in the first period, (starting) in the first gate, (in) one hundred and seventy-seven days. 16 In the course (of) its progression, it appears three months each in thirty days and n three months each in twenty-nine days. 17 By night it appears like a man, and by day it appears like the sky; for there is no other thing in it except its light.

Conclusion of the vision of astronomical laws
Chapter 79

1 (Thus) now, my son, I have revealed to you everything; (so) the rules concerning all the stars of heaven are concluded (here). 2 (Indeed) he showed me all their respective rules for every day, for every season, and for every year; the procession of each one according to the commandment, every month and every week. 3 (He showed me) the total decrement (i.e. during a half lunar year) of the moon which it makes (from the first) through the sixth gate, for (after) the light of this sixth gate is disposed of (at the end of the series of the six gates), the beginning of the decrement 4 (i.e. during the other half lunar year) which it makes (in returning) in the first gate takes place in its own season until one hundred and seventy-seven days are fulfilled, following the rule of (counting) weeks, twenty-five (weeks) and two days. 5 (The moon) falls behind the sun according to the order of the stars exactly five days during one period (i.e. one half year), and when the place which you behold has been traversed. 6 Such is the appearance and the picture of all the luminaries which Uriel the archangel, who is their leader, showed unto me.

Chapter 80

1 In those days, the angel Uriel responded and said to me, "Behold, I have shown you everything, Enoch, and I have revealed everything to you (so that) you might see this sun, this moon, and those that guide the stars of heaven as well as all those who interchange their activities and their seasons and rotate their processions.

2 In respect to their days, the sinners and the winter are cut short. Their seed(s) shall lag behind in their lands and in their fertile fields and in all their activities upon the earth. He will turn and appear in their time, and withhold rain; and the sky shall stand still at that time. 3 Then the vegetable shall slacken and not grow in its season, and the fruit shall not be born in its (proper) season. 4 The moon shall alter its order, and will not be seen according to its (normal) cycles. 5 In those days it will appear in the sky and it shall arrive in the evening in the extreme ends of the great lunar path, in the west. And it shall shine (more brightly), exceeding the normal degree of light. 6 Many of the chiefs of the stars shall make errors in respect to the orders given to them; they shall change their courses and functions and not appear during the seasons which have been prescribed for them. 7 A the orders of the stars shall harden (in disposition) against the sinners and the conscience of those that dwell upon the earth. They (the stars) shall err against them (the sinners); and modify all their courses. Then they (the sinners) shall err and take them (the stars) to be gods. 8 And evil things shall be multiplied upon them; and plagues shall come upon them, so as to destroy all.

The heavenly book and Enoch's mission
Chapter 81

1 Then he said unto me, "Enoch, look at the tablet(s) of heaven; read what is written upon them and understand (each element on them) one by one. 2 So I looked at the tablet(s) of heaven, read all the writing (on them), and came to understand everything. I read that book and all the deeds of humanity and all the children of the flesh upon the earth for all the generations of the world. 3 At that very moment, I blessed the Great Lord, the King of Glory for ever, for he has created all the phenomena in the world. I praised the Lord because of his patience; and I wept on account of the children of the people upon the earth. 4 After that, I said:

Blessed is the man who dies righteous and upright,
against whom no record of oppression has been written,
and who received no judgment on that day.

5 Then the seven holy ones brought me and placed me on the ground in front of the gate of my house, and said to me, "Make everything known to your son, Methuselah, and show to all your children that no one of the flesh can be just before the Lord; for they are merely his own creation. 6 We shall let you stay with your son for one year, so that you may teach your children another law and write it down for them and give all of them a warning; and in the second year, you shall be taken away from (among) all of them. 7 Let your heart be strong! For the upright shall announce righteousness to the upright; and the righteous ones shall rejoice with the righteous ones and congratulate each other. 8 But the sinners shall die together with the sinners; and the apostate shall sink together with the apostate. 9 But those who do right shall not die on account of the (evil) deeds of the people; it will gather on account of the deeds of the evil ones." 10 In those days, (those seven holy ones) concluded speaking with me; and then I returned to my people, blessing the Lord of the universe.

Additional astronomical-calendrical visions
Chapter 82

1 Now, Methuselah, my son, I shall recount all these things to you and write them down for you. I have revealed to you and given you the book concerning all these things. Preserve, my son, the book from your father's hands in order that you may pass it to the generations of the world. 2 I have given wisdom to you, to your children, and to those who shall become your children in order that they may pass it (in turn) to their own children and to the generations that are discerning. All the wise ones shall give praise, and wisdom shall dwell upon your consciousness; 3 they shall not slumber but be thinking; they shall cause their ears to listen in order that they may learn this wisdom; and it shall please those who feast on it more than good food. 4 Blessed are all the righteous ones; blessed are those who walk in the street of righteousness and have no sin like the sinners in the computation of the days in which the sun goes its course in the sky. It (the sun) comes in through a door and rises for thirty days together with the chiefs of the thousands of the orders of the stars, together with the four which are added to determine the intervals within (the year, that is, the intervals) between the four seasons of the year; those that lead them along come in on four days. 5 On this account there are people that err; they count them (the four?) in the computation of the year: for the people make error and do not recognize them accurately; for they belong to the reckoning of the year. 6 Truly, they are recorded forever: one in the first gate, one in the third, one in the fourth, and one in the sixth. The year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four days.

7 True is the matter of the exact computation of that which has been recorded; for Uriel - whom the Lord of all the creation of the world has ordered for me (in order to explain) the host of heaven - has revealed to me and breathed over me concerning the luminaries, the months, the festivals, the years, and the days. 8 He has the power in the heaven both day and night so that he may cause the light to shine over the people - sun, moon, and stars, and all the principalities of the heaven which revolve in their (respective) circuits. 9 These are the orders of the stars which set in their (respective) places, seasons, festivals, and months. 10 And these are the names of those which lead the ones that come out and go down in their (appointed) seasons, which lead them in their (respective) places, orders, times, months, authorities, and locations. 11 The four leaders which distinguish the four seasons of the year enter first; after them (enter) the twelve leaders of the orders which distinguish the months; and the three hundred and sixty captains which divide the days and the four epagomenal days, (and) leaders which divide the four seasons of the year. 12 These captains over thousands are added between leader and leader, each behind a place to stand; but their leaders make the division. 13 And these are the names of the leaders which divide the four seasons of the years which are fixed: Malki'ēl, Hēla'emmemēlek, Milāy'ul, and Nārēl. 14 The names of those who lead them are 'Adnār'ul, 'lyāsus-'ēl, 'Ēlum'ēl - these three follow the leaders of the orders, as well as the four which follow after the three leaders of the orders, which follow after those leaders of the stations that divide the four seasons of the year. 15 At the very beginning, Malkiyāl, whose name is called Tam'ayen - and the sun - rises and rules; and all the days of his authority - during which he reigns - are ninety-one days. 16 And these are the signs of the days which become manifest during the period of his authority: sweat, heat, and dryness; all the trees bear fruit (and) leaves grow on all trees; (there will be) good harvest, rose flowers, and all the flowers which grow in the field; but the winter tree shall wither. 17 And these are the names of the leaders which are their subordinates: Berkā'ēl, Zalebsā'ēl, and another additional one, a captain of a thousand, named Hēluyāsāf - is the days of the authority of this one have been completed. 18 The next leader after him is Hela'emmemēlēk, whose name they call the bright sun; and all the days of his light are ninety-one days. 19 And these are the days of signs upon signs upon the earth: scorching heat and drought; and trees will produce their glowing fruits and impart of their ripened ones; the sheep shall seek (one another) and become pregnant; and all the fruits of the earth are gathered in, and all that is in the fields as well as the winepress. (These things) shall take place in the days of his authority. 20 These are the names, the orders, and the subordinates of those captains over thousands: Gēda'iyāl, Hēlyā'ēl, and Ki'ēl; and the name of the one that is added together with them is a captain over a thousand called 'Asfā'ēl - the days of the authority of this one have been completed.

BOOK IV (83-90)

The Dream Visions

Vision of the Deluge
Chapter 83

(Book) Four. 1 Now, my son Methuselah, will show you all the visions which I saw, recounting them before you. 2 I saw two (visions) before I got married; and neither one of them resembles the other: The first one (I saw) when I (was beginning to) learn book(s), and the second, before I got married to your mother. First, I saw a scary vision regarding which I prayed to the Lord. 3 I was (then) sleeping in my grandfather Mahalalel's house, and I saw in a vision the sky being hurled down and snatched and falling upon the earth. 4 When it fell upon the earth, I saw the earth being swallowed up into the great abyss, the mountains being suspended upon mountains, the hills sinking down upon the hills, and tall trees being uprooted and thrown and sinking into the deep abyss. 5 Thereupon a word fell into my mouth; and I began crying aloud, saying, "The earth is being destroyed." 6 Then my grandfather, Mahalalel, woke me up while I was sleeping together with him and said to me, "What happened to you that you are crying aloud like this, my son, and why are you lamenting in this manner?" 7 And I recounted to him the whole vision which I had seen. And he said unto me, "How terrifying a thing have you seen, my son! You have seen in your dream a powerful vision - all the sins of the whole world as it was sinking into the abyss and being destroyed with great destruction. 8 Now, my son, rise and pray to the Lord of glory, for you are a man of faith, so that a remnant shall remain upon the earth and that the whole earth shall not be blotted out." 9 My son, all the things upon the earth shall take place from heaven; and there will occur a great destruction upon the earth. 10 After that, I rose and prayed, made a petition, and begged; and I wrote down all the prayers of the generations of the world. I will show you everything, my son, Methuselah. 11 Had I descended underneath and seen the sky, the sun rising in the east, the moon descending in the west, the diminishing of the stars, and the whole earth, I would have recognized everything upon her. So I blessed the Lord of judgment and extolled him. For he has made the sun to come out from the windows of the east; so it ascended and rose upon the face of the sky, starting to go the way that it was shown.

Chapter 84

1 Then I raised up my hands in righteousness and blessed the Holy and Great One; and I spoke with the breath of my mouth and the tongue of flesh which God has made for the children of the flesh, the people, so that they should speak with it; he gave them the breath and the mouth so that they should speak with it.

2 Blessed are you, O Great King,
you are mighty in your greatness,
O Lord of all the creation of heaven,
King of kings and God of the whole world.
Your authority and kingdom abide forever and ever;
and your dominion throughout all the generations of generations;
all the heavens are your throne forever,
and the whole earth is your footstool forever and ever and ever.
3 For you have created (all),
and all things you rule; not a single thing is hard for you - (absolutely) not a single thing or wisdom;
Your throne has not retreated from her station nor from before your presence.
Everything you know, you see, and you hear;
nothing exists that can be hidden from you, for everything you expose.
4 The angels of your heavens are now committing sin (upon the earth),
and your wrath shall rest upon the flesh of the people until (the arrival of) the great day of judgment

5 "Now, O God, and Lord and Great King, I pray and beg so that you may sustain my prayer and save for me (a generation) that will succeed me in the earth; and do not destroy all the flesh of the people and empty the earth (so that) there shall be eternal destruction. 6 Do now destroy, O my Lord, the flesh that has angered you from upon the earth, but sustain the flesh of righteousness and uprightness as a plant of eternal seed; and hide not your face from the prayer of your servant, O Lord."

Vision of various cows
Chapter 85

1 After this, I saw another dream; and I will show you everything, my son. 2 Then Enoch responded and said to his son, Methuselah: I shall speak to you, my son, hear my words and incline your ears to the dream vision of your father. 3 Before I married your mother, Edna, I was seeing a vision on my bed, and behold a cow emerged from the earth, and that bovid was snow-white; and after it, there came forth one female calf together with two other calves, one of which was dark and the other red. 4 The dark calf gored that red calf and pursued it over the earth; thereafter I was not able to see that red calf. 5 But the dark calf grew big, and it brought along that female calf; and I saw that many bovids, which resembled it, proceeded forth from it, and followed after them. 6 That first heifer departed from before the face of that first bovid, and looked for that red calf, but could not find it; so she lamented over it with great lamentation, in searching for it. 7 I kept looking until that first cow came and quieted her; from that moment, she stopped crying. 8 After that she bore two snow-white cows; and after it she bore many more cows as well as dark heifers. 9 I also saw in my sleep that snow-white bull, and he grew big likewise and became a great snow-white bull; and there proceeded forth from him many snow-white cows which resembled him. 10 Then they began to give birth to many snow-white cows which resembled them, each one following many others.

Vision of the fallen stars among the cows
Chapter 86

1 Again I saw (a vision) with my own eyes as I was sleeping, and saw the lofty heaven; and as I looked, behold, a star fell down from heaven but (managed) to rise and eat and to be pastured among those cows. 2 Then I saw these big and dark cows, and behold they all changed their cattle-sheds, their pastures, and their calves; and they began to lament with each other. 3 Once again I saw a vision, and I observed the sky and behold, I saw many stars descending and casting themselves down from the sky upon that first star; and they became bovids among those calves and were pastured together with them, in their midst. 4 I kept observing, and behold, I saw all of them extending their sexual organs like horses and commencing to mount upon the heifers, the bovids; and they (the latter) all became pregnant and bore elephants, camels, and donkeys. 5 So (the cattle) became fearful and frightened of them and began to bite with their teeth and swallow and to gore with their horns. 6 Then they began to eat those bovids. And behold, all the children of the earth began to tremble and to shake before them and to flee from them.

Vision of four heavenly beings
Chapter 87

1 Again I saw them commencing to gore and devour one another; so the earth began to cry aloud. 2 And I lifted my eyes unto heaven and saw a vision: And behold, there came forth from heaven (a being) in the form of a snow-white person - one came out of that place and three (others) with him. 3 Those ones which had come out last seized me by my hand and took me from the generations of the earth, lifted me up into a high place, and showed me a high tower above the earth, and all the hills were firm. 4 (One of them) said to me, "Stay here until you see everything that will happen to these elephants, camels, and donkeys, as well as to the stars and to the bovids - all of them."

Vision of the punishment of the fallen stars
Chapter 88

1 I then I saw one of those four who had come out earlier seizing that first star, binding his hands and feet, and throwing him into an abyss - this abyss was narrow and deep, empty and dark. 2 Also one of them drew a sword and gave it to those elephants, camels, and donkeys; then they began to attack one another, and on account of them the whole earth was quaking. 3 And as I continued to see in the vision, behold, from that time, one of the four, among those who had come out, was stoning from the sky, and gathering and taking away all the mighty stars, whose sexual organs were like the sexual organs of horses; then he bound all of them hand and foot, and cast them into the pits of the earth.

The Great Flood
Chapter 89

1 Then one of those four went to those snow-white bovids and taught (one of them) a secret: he was born a bovid but became a person; and he built for himself a big boat and dwelt upon it. Three cows dwelt together with him in that boat, and that boat was covered (over) them. 2 Again I raised my eyes toward heaven, and saw a lofty ceiling with seven cascading streams upon it; and those cascading streams flowed with much water into one enclosed area. 3 Again I saw, and behold, fountains were opened upon the ground of that great enclosed area, and the water began to swell and rise upon the ground; and I saw that enclosed area until the whole ground was (completely) covered with water. 4 Water, darkness, and mist accumulated heavily upon it; and looked at the ascent of that water going up and up until it rose above that enclosed area, and was streaming above the enclosed area; thus it was standing above the ground. 5 And everything that was in the enclosed area; and (all those on the ground) were gathered together until I saw them sinking, being swallowed up, and perishing in that water. 6 Yet that boat was floating above the water, though all the cattle, elephants, camels, and donkeys were sinking to the bottom; so I could (no longer) see any one of the animals (for) they had no ability to come out but (only) to perish and sink into the deep water. 7 Again I kept seeing in the vision until those cascading streams were dissipated from that high ceiling, the fountains of the earth were normalized, and other pits were opened. 8 Then the water began to descend into them until the ground became visible, that boat settled upon the earth, the darkness vanished, and it became light. 9 Then the snow-white cow which became a man came out from that boat together with three cows. One of those three cows was snow-white, similar to that (first) cow, and one of them red like blood. Now that (first) snow-white cow departed from them.

From the Flood to the exodus

10 Then they began to bear the beasts of the fields and the birds. There arose out of them all classes of population: lions, leopards, wolves, snakes, hyenas, wild boars, foxes, squirrels, swine, hawks, eagles, kites, striped crow(s), and ravens. Among them there was also born a snow-white cow. 11 Then they began to bite one another among themselves. That snow-white cow which was born in their midst begat a wild ass, and a snow-white cow with it; and the wild asses multiplied. 12 And that cow which was born from him bore a black wild boar and a snow-white sheep; the former then bore healthy beasts and the latter bore twelve sheep. 13 When those twelve sheep had grown up, they gave away one of their own members to the donkeys, which in turn gave him away to the wolves; so this sheep grew up in the midst of the wolves. 14 Then the Lord brought the eleven sheep to dwell with him, and to pasture in the midst of the wolves; and they multiplied and became many flocks of sheep. 15 Then the wolves began to fear them; so they tortured them until their little ones were being killed (for) they cast away their little ones into a river of great quantity of water. So those sheep began to cry aloud on behalf of their little ones and to complain unto their Lord. 16 Then one sheep which had been saved from the wolves fled and escaped to the wild asses. But I saw the sheep continuing to lament and cry aloud; and they kept praying to their Lord with all their strength until the Lord of the sheep descended at their entreatment, from a lofty palace, arriving to visit them. 17 He called that sheep which had escaped from the wolves and told him concerning the wolves that is he should warn the wolves not to touch the sheep. 18 The sheep then went to the wolves in accordance with the word of the Lord, together with another sheep which he had met, so the two of them went on and arrived together into the assembly of those wolves, and spoke to them and warned them not to touch the sheep. 19 But thenceforth I saw how the wolves even intensified their pressure upon the sheep. They, the sheep, cried aloud - they cried aloud with all their strength. 20 Then their Lord came to (the rescue of) the sheep, whereupon they began to whip those wolves. So the wolves began to make lamentations, but the sheep thereafter became quiet and stopped crying aloud. 21 I continued to see the sheep until they departed from (the presence) of the wolves, and the wolves (until) their eyes were dazzled; yet the wolves went out to pursue those sheep, with all their might. 22 But the Lord of the sheep went with them as their leader, while all his sheep were following him; his face was glorious, adorable, and marvelous to behold. 23 As for the wolves, they continued to pursue those sheep until they found them at a certain pool of water. 24 Then the pool of water was rent asunder, and the water stood apart on this and on that side before their very eyes, and their Lord, their leader, stood between them and the wolves. 25 Those wolves were still not able to see the sheep, and (the sheep) walked through that pool of water; then the wolves followed the sheep and ran after them into that pool of water. 26 Then when they saw the Lord of the sheep, they turned in order to flee from before his face. But that pool of water gathered itself together and immediately returned to its normal state, the water became full and rose high until it covered (completely) those wolves. 27 Thus I saw till the wolves which pursued those sheep perished and were drowned.

From the exodus to the entrance to the land of Canaan

28 So the sheep proceeded past that water and arrived in the desert, where there was no water or grass; but they began to open their eyes and see. Then I saw the Lord of the sheep bringing them to a pasture and giving them grass and water. Also that sheep was leading them as they were proceeding forward. 29 That sheep then ascended to the summit of that lofty rock; and the Lord of the sheep sent (him) to them. 30 After that, I saw the Lord of the sheep, who stood before them; his appearance was majestic, marvelous, and powerful; all those sheep beheld him and were afraid before his face. 31 All of them feared and trembled because of him, and cried aloud to that sheep (who was) leading them and to the other sheep who was also in their midst, saying, "We are not able to stand before the presence of our Lord and to look at him." 32 Then that sheep which was leading them turned back and (again) ascended to the summit of that rock; meanwhile the sheep began to be dim-sighted in their eyes, and went astray from the path which he had shown them; but that sheep was not aware of it. 33 So the Lord of the sheep became angry at them with great wrath; and that sheep became aware of it, and having descended from the summit of that rock, came to the sheep and found that the majority of them had been blinded in their eyes and gone astray. 34 And those who saw him became afraid, trembling in his presence, and wanted to return to their folds. 35 So that sheep took some other different sheep together with them and came to those sheep which had gone astray, slaying them; and the sheep became frightened in his presence. He, that sheep, thus caused those sheep which went astray to return, and brought them back into their folds. 36 I continued to see in that vision till that sheep was transformed into a man and built a house for the Lord of the sheep, and placed the sheep in it. 37 I, moreover, continued to see until that sheep, which had met the sheep that was their leader, fell asleep and all the senior sheep perished, junior ones rising to take their places. Then coming into a pasture, they approached a stream of water. 38 (There) that sheep who was leading them - the one who had become a man - departed from them, and all of them went to sleep.(Then the rest of) the sheep sought him; and there took place a great cry over him. 39 And I kept looking till they quieted down from crying for that sheep, crossed that stream of water, and all of the sheep stopped. Those who were leading them made agreements with those whom they found, and they led them. 40 I still kept seeing the sheep till they arrived at a very pleasant place and in a land beautiful and glorious; I saw those sheep being satiated; and that house was in their midst in the beautiful land, by which their eyes become opened.

From Judges to the building of the Temple

41 And when their eyes become dim-sighted until another sheep arose and led them, they would all return and their eyes became opened. 42 Now the dogs, foxes, and the wild boars began to devour those sheep till the Lord of the sheep raised up another sheep, one from among them - a ram which would lead them. 43 That ram began to fight on all sides those dogs, foxes, and wild boars until he destroyed all of them. 44 Then that sheep had his eyes opened; and he saw that ram which was among the sheep, how he abandoned his own glory and began to attack those sheep, to trample upon them, and went away without dignity. 45 So the Lord of the sheep sent the sheep to another sheep and promoted him to become a ram and lead the sheep in place of that sheep which had abandoned his own glory. 46 After having gone to him, he spoke to him privately and raised that ram, making him a judge and a leader of the people - throughout (this time) the dogs were continuing to covet the sheep. 47 The first ram then persecuted that second ram, so that latter ram arose and escaped from before his (the former's) presence; and then I continued to look until those dogs toppled that first sheep. 48 But that second ram arose and led the little sheep. That ram begat many sheep and fell asleep before a little sheep became a ram in his place, a judge and a leader of those sheep. 49 Those sheep grew and multiplied, but all those dogs, foxes, and wild boars feared and fled before him. That ram attacked and killed all the wild beasts; and all the wild beasts were no longer able to return among the sheep or to so rob absolutely anything from them. 50 Then that house became great and spacious; a lofty building was built upon it for that sheep, as well as a tall and great tower upon it for the Lord of the sheep; that house was low but the tower was really elevated and lofty. Then the Lord of the sheep stood upon that tower, and they offered a full table before him.

The two kingdoms of Israel and Judah: the destruction of Jerusalem

51 Again I saw those sheep, how they went astray, going in diverse ways and abandoning that house of his. Then the Lord of the sheep called some from among the sheep and sent them to the sheep, but the sheep began to slay them. 52 However, one of them was not killed but escaped alive and fled away; he cried aloud to the sheep, and they wanted to kill him, but the Lord of the sheep rescued him from the sheep and caused him to ascend to me and settle down. 53 He sent many other sheep to those sheep to testify to them and to lament over them. 54 Thereafter I saw that, when they abandoned the house of the Lord and his tower, they went astray completely, and their eyes became blindfolded. Then I saw the Lord of the sheep, how he executed much slaughter upon them, in their flocks, until those sheep (began to) invoke that slaughter, and he vindicated his place. 55 He left them in the hands of the lions, leopards, and wolves, hyenas, as well as in the hands of the foxes and to all the wild beasts; and these wild beasts of the wilderness began to tear those sheep into pieces. 56 I saw how he left that house of theirs and that tower of theirs and cast all of them into the hands of the lions - (even) into the hands of all the wild beasts - so that they may tear them into pieces and eat them. 57 Then I began to cry aloud with all my strength and to call upon the Lord of the lions and to reveal to him concerning the sheep, for he had fed them to all the wild beasts. 58 But he remained quiet and happy because they were being devoured, swallowed, and snatched; so he abandoned them into the hands of all the wild beasts for food. 59 He then summoned seventy shepherds and surrendered those sheep to them so that they might pasture them. He spoke to the shepherds and their colleagues, "From now on, let each and every one of you graze the sheep; and do everything which I command you. 60 I shall hand them over to you duly counted and tell you which among them are to be destroyed; and you shall destroy them!" 61 So he handed over those sheep to them. Then calling another (group of shepherds), he told them, "Take notice and see everything which the shepherds will do to those sheep; for they will destroy from among them a greater number than those which I have commanded them. 62 You write down every excess and destruction that will be wrought through the shepherds - how many they destroy according to my command, and how many they will destroy of their own accord! Write down every destruction that each and every shepherd causes, against their records! 63 And read aloud before me each particular case - how many they destroy and how many they give over to destruction - so that this may become a testimony for me against them, so that I may know all the deeds of the shepherds, (and) so that I may evaluate them and see what they do, whether they act according to my command which I have commanded them or not. 64 If they do not know it, do not reveal it to them, neither admonish them, but write down every destruction caused by the shepherds - for each and every one in his appointed time - and elevate all of it to me." 65 And I saw till those shepherds in their appointed time pastured (the sheep) and began killing and destroying many in excess of what they had been commanded; and they abandoned those sheep into the hands of the lions. 66 So the lions and the leopards ate and devoured the majority of those sheep; the wild boars also ate along with them. Then they burned that tower and plowed that house. 67 And I became exceedingly sorrowful on account of that tower, for that house of the sheep was being plowed; thereafter I was unable to see whether those sheep could enter that house.

From the destruction of Jerusalem to the return from exile

68 So the shepherds and their colleagues handed over those sheep to all the wild beasts so that they might devour them. At the appointed time, each one among them (the shepherds) receives (the sheep) in a fixed number; and each one among them (the shepherds) hands them (the sheep) over to the other (the colleague) in a fixed number. (Then) they shall write down for the other (the colleague) in a book how many among them (the sheep) would perish. 69 Each and every one of them kills and destroys in excess of their order. So I began to weep and cry aloud on account of those sheep. 70 In this manner I saw that writer in my vision - how he writes down that which was destroyed by those shepherds, every day, and (how) he elevates, puts down, and shows the whole book to the Lord of the sheep; everything that each one has done; everything that each and every one of them has eliminated; and everything that they have given over to destruction. 71 The book was read before the Lord of the sheep; and he took it from his hand, read it, sealed it, and laid it down.

72 Thereafter I saw the shepherds pasturing for twelve hours: behold, three of those sheep returning, arriving, entering, and beginning to build all (the parts) of that house which had fallen down! The wild boars came and tried to hinder them but were unsuccessful.

From the return of the exiles to the beginning of the Hellenistic period

73 They again began to build as before; and they raised up that tower which is called the high tower. But they started to place a table before the tower, with all the food which is upon it being polluted and impure. 74 Regarding all these matters, the eyes of the sheep became so dim-sighted that they could not see - and likewise in respect to their shepherds - and they were delivered to their shepherds for an excessive destruction, so that the sheep were trampled upon and eaten. 75 The Lord of the sheep remained silent until all the sheep were dispersed into the woods and got mixed among the wild beasts, - and could not be rescued from the hands of the beasts. 76 The one who was writing a book elevated and showed it and read the grave words of the Lord of the sheep. He then pleaded to him and begged him on account of the sheep, while manifesting to him all the deeds of the shepherds and giving testimony before him against all the shepherds. 77 Then taking it, he placed that very book beside him in this manner and departed.

Chapter 90

1 Then I saw after that how thirty-seven shepherds were pasturing (the sheep); all of them completed (their duties) in their own respective periods, like the former ones; and aliens took (the sheep) into their hands in order to pasture them in their own respective periods - each shepherd in his own period. 2 After that I saw with my own eyes all the birds of heaven - eagles, vultures, kites, and ravens - coming; the eagles were the ones who were leading all the birds; and they began to eat those sheep, to dig out their eyes, and to eat their flesh. 3 Then the sheep cried aloud, for their flesh was being eaten by the birds. I, too, cried aloud and lamented in my sleep on account of that shepherd who was grazing the sheep. 4 I kept seeing till those sheep were eaten by the dogs, the eagles, and the kites; and they left neither flesh, nor skin, nor sinew on them absolutely, until their bones stood there bare; then their bones fell to the ground, and the sheep became few. 5 I kept seeing till twenty-three shepherds pastured (the sheep), and all of them completed fifty-eight seasons in their own respective periods.

From the Maccabean revolt to the establishment of the messianic kingdom

6 Then, behold lambs were born from those snow-white sheep; and they began to open their eyes and see, and cried aloud to the sheep. 7 But as for the sheep, they (the lambs) cried aloud to them, yet they (the sheep) did not listen to what they (the lambs) were telling them but became exceedingly deafened, and their eyes became exceedingly dim-sighted. 8 Then I saw in a vision ravens flying above those lambs, and they seized one of those lambs; and then smashing the sheep, they ate them. 9 I kept seeing till those lambs grew horns; but the ravens crushed their horns. Then I kept seeing till one great horn sprouted on one of those sheep, and he opened their eyes; and they had vision in them and their eyes were opened. 10 He cried aloud to the sheep, and all the rams saw him and ran unto him. 11 In spite of this, all those eagles, vultures, ravens, and kites until now continue to rip the sheep, swooping down upon them and eating them. As for the sheep, they remain silent; but the rams are lamenting and crying aloud. 12 Those ravens gather and battle with him (the horned ram) and seek to remove his horn, but without any success.

13 I saw thereafter the shepherds coming; and those vultures and kites cried aloud to the ravens so that they should smash the horn of that ram. But he battled with them, and they fought each other; and he cried aloud, while battling with them, so that (God's) help should come. 14 I kept seeing till that man, who writes down the names of the shepherds and elevates them before the Lord of the sheep, came; it is he who helped him and revealed (to him) everything; thus help came down for that is ram. 15 And I kept seeing till the Lord of the sheep came upon them in wrath, and all who saw him fled and fell all into darkness, from before his face. 16 All the eagles, vultures, ravens, and kites gathered, with all the sheep of the field lining up with them; and having thus come together in unity, all of them cooperated in order to smash the horn of the ram. 17 I saw that man who was writing a book by the command of the Lord, for he opened that book (of) the destruction which those twelve last shepherds caused; and he revealed before the Lord of the sheep that they had much is greater destruction than their predecessors. 18 I kept seeing till the Lord of the sheep came unto them and took in his hand the rod of his wrath and smote the earth; and all the beasts and all the birds of the heaven fell down from the midst of those sheep and were swallowed up in the earth, and it was covered upon them. 19 Then I saw that a great sword was given to the sheep; and the sheep proceeded against all the beasts of the field in order to kill them; and all the beasts and birds of heaven fled from before their face.

20 Then I kept seeing till a throne was erected in a pleasant land; and he sat upon it for the Lord of the sheep; and he took all the sealed books and opened those very books in the presence of the Lord of the sheep. 21 Then the Lord called those people, the seven first snow-white ones, and ordered them to bring before him (some) from among the first star(s) that arose, and from among those stars whose sexual organs were like those of the horses, as well as (that) first star which had fallen down earlier. And they brought them all before him. 22 He spoke to the man who was writing in his presence - that (man) being one of those seven snow-white ones - saying, "Take those seven shepherds to whom I had handed over the sheep, but who decided to kill many more than they were ordered." 23 Behold, I saw all of them bound; and they all stood before him. 24 Then his judgment took place. First among the stars, they received their judgment and were found guilty, and they went to the place of condemnation; and they were thrown into an abyss, full of fire and flame and full of the pillar of fire. 25 Then those seventy shepherds were judged and found guilty; and they were cast into that fiery abyss. 26 In the meantime I saw how another abyss like it, full of fire, was opened wide in the middle of the ground; and they brought those blinded sheep, all of which were judged, found guilty, and cast into this fiery abyss, and they were burned - the abyss to the right of that house; 27 thus I saw those sheep while they were burning - their bones also were burning.

28 Then I stood still, looking at that ancient house being transformed: All the pillars and all the columns were pulled out; and the ornaments of that house were packed and taken out together with them and abandoned in a certain place in the South of the land. 29 I went on seeing until the Lord of the sheep brought about a new house, greater and loftier than the first one, and set it up in the first location which had been covered up - all its pillars were new, the columns new; and the ornaments new as well as greater than those of the first, (that is) the old (house) which was gone. All the sheep were within it.

30 Then I saw all the sheep that had survived as well as all the animals upon the earth and the birds of heaven, falling down and worshiping those sheep, making petition to them and obeying them in every respect. 31 Thereafter, those three who were wearing snow-white (clothes), the former ones who had caused me to go up, grabbed me by my hand - also the hand of that ram holding me - and I ascended; they set me down in the midst of those sheep prior to the occurrence of this judgment. 32 Those sheep were all snow-white, and their wool considerable and clean. 33 All those which have been destroyed and dispersed, and all the beasts of the field and the birds of the sky were gathered together in that house; and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced with great joy because they had all become gentle and returned to his house. 34 I went on seeing until they had laid down that sword which was given to the sheep; they returned it to the house and sealed it in the presence of the Lord. All the sheep were invited to that house but it could not contain them (all). 35 The eyes of all of them were opened, and they saw the beautiful things; not a single one existed among them that could not see. 36 Also I noticed that the house was large, wide, and exceedingly full.

37 Then I saw that a snow-white cow was born, with huge horns; all the beasts of the field and all the birds of the sky feared him and made petition to him all the time. 38 I went on seeing until all their kindred were transformed, and became snow-white cows; and the first among them became something, and that something became a great beast with huge black horns on its head. The Lord of the sheep rejoiced over it and over all the cows. 39 I myself became satiated in their midst. Then woke up and saw everything.

40 This is the vision which I saw while I was sleeping. Then I woke up and blessed the Lord of righteousness and gave him glory. 41 And I wept with a great weeping, and my tears could not stop, till I had no more endurance left, but flowed down on account of what I had seen until everything should come and be fulfilled. The deeds of the people were also shown to me, each according to its type. 42 On that night I remembered the first dream and wept on its account, and was restless because I had (just) seen that vision.

BOOK V (91-107)

The Two Ways of the Righteous and the Sinner

Including the Apocalypse of Weeks

Enoch's admonition to his children
Chapter 91

1 Now, my son Methuselah, (please) summon all your brothers on my behalf, and gather together to me all the sons of your mother; for a voice calls me, and the spirit is poured over me so that may show you everything that shall happen to you forever. 2 Then Methuselah went and summoned his brothers, and having summoned them to him, gathered his family together. 3 Then he (Enoch) spoke to all of them, children of righteousness, and said, "Hear, all you children of Enoch, the talk of your father and listen to my voice in uprightness; 4 for I exhort you, (my) beloved, and say to you: Love uprightness, and it alone. Do not draw near uprightness with an ambivalent attitude, and neither associate with hypocrites. But walk in righteousness, my children, and it shall lead you in the good paths; and righteousness shall be your friend. 5 For I know that the state of violence will intensify upon the earth; a great plague shall be executed upon the earth; all (forms of) oppression will be carried out; and everything shall be uprooted; and every arrow shall fly fast. 6 Oppression shall recur once more and be carried out upon the earth; every (form of) oppression, injustice, and iniquity shall infect (the world) twofold. 7 When sin, oppression, blasphemy, and injustice increase, crime, iniquity, and uncleanliness shall be committed and increase (likewise). Then a great plague shall take place from heaven upon all these; the holy Lord shall emerge with wrath and plague in order that he may execute judgment upon the earth. 8 In those days, injustice shall be cut off from its (sources of succulent) fountain and from its roots - (likewise) oppression together with deceit; they shall be destroyed from underneath heaven. 9 All that which is (common) with the heathen shall be surrendered; the towers shall be inflamed with fire, and be removed from the whole earth. They shall be thrown into the judgment of fire, and perish in wrath and in the force of the eternal judgment. 10 Then the righteous one shall arise from his sleep, and the wise one shall arise; and he shall be given unto them (the people), 11 and through him the roots of oppression shall be cut off. Sinners shall be destroyed; by the sword they shall be cut off (together with) the blasphemers in every place; and those who design oppression and commit blasphemy shall perish by the knife.

12 "Then after that there shall occur the second eighth week - the week of righteousness. A sword shall be given to it in order that judgment shall be executed in righteousness on the oppressors, and sinners shall be delivered into the hands of the righteous. 13 At its completion, they shall acquire great things through their righteousness. A house shall be built for the Great King in glory for evermore.

14 "Then after that in the ninth week the righteous judgment shall be revealed to the whole world. All the deeds of the sinners shall depart from upon the whole earth, and be written off for eternal destruction; and all people shall direct their sight to the path of uprightness.

15 "Then, after this matter, on the tenth week in the seventh part, there shall be the eternal judgment; and it shall be executed by the angels of the eternal heaven - the great (judgment) which emanates from all of the angels. 16 The first heaven shall depart and pass away; a new heaven shall appear; and all the powers of heaven shall shine forever sevenfold.

17 "Then after that there shall be many weeks without number forever; it shall be (a time) of goodness and righteousness, and sin shall no more be heard of forever.

18 "Now I shall speak unto you, my children, and show you the ways of righteousness and the ways of wickedness. Moreover, I shall make a revelation to you so that you may know that which is going to take place. 19 Now listen to me, my children, and walk in the way of righteousness, and do not walk in the way of wickedness, for all those who walk in the ways of injustice shall perish."

Chapter 92

1 (Book) five, which is written by Enoch, the writer of all the signs of wisdom among all the people. He is blessed and noble in all the earth. (It is written) for all the offspring that dwell upon the earth, and for the latter generations which uphold uprightness and peace.

2 Let not your spirit be troubled by the times, for the Holy and Great One has designated (specific) days for all things. 3 The Righteous One shall awaken from his sleep; he shall arise and walk in the ways of righteousness; and all the way of his conduct shall be in goodness and generosity forever. 4 He will be generous to the Righteous One, and give him eternal uprightness; he will give authority, and judge s in kindness and righteousness; and they shall walk in eternal light. 5 Sin and darkness shall perish forever, and shall no more be seen from that day forevermore.

The Apocalypse of Weeks
Chapter 93

1 Then after that Enoch happened to be recounting from the books. 2 And Enoch said, "Concerning the children of righteousness, concerning the elect ones of the world, and concerning the plant of truth, I will speak these things, my children, verily I, Enoch, myself, and let you know (about it) according to that which was revealed to me from the heavenly vision, that which I have learned from the words of the holy angels, and understood from the heavenly tablets." 3 He then began to recount from the books and said, "I was born the seventh during the first week, during which time judgment and righteousness continued to endure. 4 After me there shall arise in the second week great and evil things; deceit should grow, and therein the first consummation will take place. But therein (also) a (certain) man shall be saved. After it is ended, injustice shall become greater, and he shall make a law for the sinners.

5 "Then after that at the completion of the third week a (certain) man shall be elected as the plant of the righteous judgment, and after him one (other) shall emerge as the eternal plant of righteousness.

6 "After that at the completion of the fourth week visions of the old and righteous ones shall be seen; and a law shall be made with a fence, for all the generations.

7 "After that in the fifth week, at the completion of glory, a house and a kingdom shall be built.

8 "After that in the sixth week those who happen to be in it shall all of them be blindfolded, and the hearts of them all shall forget wisdom. Therein, a (certain) man shall ascend. And, at its completion, the house of the kingdom shall be burnt with fire; and therein the whole clan of the chosen root shall be dispersed.

9 "After that in the seventh week an apostate generation shall arise; its deeds shall be many, and all of them criminal. 10 At its completion, there shall be elected the elect ones of righteousness from the eternal plant of righteousness, to whom shall be given sevenfold instruction concerning all his flock.

11 "For what kind of a human being is there that is able to hear the voice of the Holy One without being shaken? Who is there that is able to ponder his (deep) thoughts? Who is there that can look directly at all the good deeds? 12 What kind of a person is he that can (fully) understand the activities of heaven, so that he can see a soul, or even perhaps a spirit - or, even if he ascended (into the heavens) and saw all (these heavenly beings and) their wings and contemplated them; or, even if he can do (what the heavenly beings) do? - and is able to live? 13 What kind of a person is anyone that is able to understand the nature of the breadth and length of the earth? To whom has the extent of all these been shown? 14 Is there perchance any human being that is able to understand the length of heaven, the extent of its altitude, upon what it is founded, the number of the stars, and (the place) where all the luminaries rest?

Enoch's advice to his children and to the righteous
Chapter 94

1 "Now, my children, say to you: Love righteousness and walk therein! For the ways of righteousness are worthy of being embraced; (but) the ways of wickedness shall soon perish and diminish. 2 To (certain) known persons, the ways of injustice and death shall be revealed as soon as they are born; and they shall keep themselves at a distance from (those ways) and would not follow them. 3 Now to you, those righteous ones, I say: Do not walk in the evil way, or in the way of death! Do not draw near to them lest you be destroyed! 4 But seek for yourselves and choose righteousness and the elect life! Walk in the way of peace so that you shall have life and be worthy! 5 Hold fast my words in the thoughts of your hearts; and let them not be erased from your hearts! For I do know that sinners will counsel the people to perform evil craft; and every place will welcome it, and every advice (of the sinners) may not diminish.

6 "Woes unto the sinners "Woe unto those who build oppression and injustice!
Who lay foundations for deceit.
They shall soon be demolished;
and they shall have no peace.
7 Woe unto those who build their houses with sin!
For they shall all be demolished from their foundations;
and they shall fall by the sword.
Those who amass gold and silver;
they shall quickly be destroyed.
8 Woe unto you, O rich people!
For you have put your trust in your wealth.
You shall ooze out of your riches,
for you do not remember the Most High.
9 In the days of your affluence, you committed oppression,
you have become ready for death, and for the day of darkness and the day of great judgment.
10 Thus I speak and let you know:
For he who has created you, he will also throw you down upon your own righteousness!
There shall be no mercy (for you).
11 And he, your Creator, shall rejoice at your destruction.
(O God), your righteous ones shall be a reproach to the sinners and the wicked.

Enoch's sorrow and more woes unto the sinners
Chapter 95

1 "Who would induce" my eyes like a cloud of waters;
that I may weep over you,
pouring my tears over you like a cloud of waters,
so I would rest from the sorrow of my heart!
2 Who permits you to engage in evil fight?
Judgment will catch up with you, sinners.
3 You righteous ones, fear not the sinners!
For the Lord will again deliver them into your hands,
so that you may carry out against them anything that you desire.
4 Woe unto you who pronounce anathemas so that they may be neutralized!
(Salutary) remedy is far from you, on account of your sins.
5 Woe unto you who reward evil to your neighbors!
For you shall be rewarded in accordance with your deeds.
6 Woe unto you, witnesses of falsehood!
And unto those who prepare oppression!
For you shall perish soon.
7 Woe unto you, sinners, for you persecute the righteous!
For you shall be handed over and be persecuted through oppression.
Its yoke shall be heavy upon you.

Hope for the righteous ones, more woes for the sinners
Chapter 96

1 "Be hopeful, you righteous ones, for the sinners shall soon perish from before your presence.
You shall be given authority upon them, such (authority) as you may wish (to have).
2 In the day of the tribulation of the sinners,
your children shall be raised high up and be made openly visible like eagles,
higher than the vultures will your dwelling place be,
you shall ascend and enter the crevices of the earth and the clefts of the rock forever,
like squirrels, before the face of the oppressors,
the sirens shall be blown over you,
wailing like the buzzing of wild bees.
3 But you, who have experienced pain, fear not,
for there shall be a healing medicine for you,
a bright light shall enlighten you,
and a voice of rest you shall hear from heaven.
4 Woe unto you, you sinners!
For your money makes you appear like the righteous,
but your hearts do reprimand you like real sinners,
this very matter shall be a witness against you, as a record of your evil deeds.
5 Woe unto you who eat the best bread!
And drink wine in large bowls,
trampling upon the weak people with your might.
6 Woe unto you who have water available to you all the time,
for soon you shall be consumed and wither away,
for you have forsaken the fountain of life.
7 Woe unto you who carry out oppression, deceit, and blasphemy!
There shall be a record of evil against you.
8 Woe unto you, O powerful people!
You who coerce the righteous with your power, t
he day of your destruction is coming!
In those days, at the time of your condemnation,
many and good days shall come for the righteous ones.

The sorrowful end of sinners, oppressors, and the rich; and more woes to them
Chapter 97

1 "Be confident, you righteous ones!
For the sinners are due for a shame.
They shall perish on the day of (the judgment of) oppression.
Take for granted this (indisputable) matter,
2 for the Most High shall record your destruction for you (O sinners),
and the angels of heaven shall rejoice over your destruction.
3 What do you intend to do, you sinners,
whither will you flee on that day of judgment,
when you hear the sound of the prayer of the righteous ones?
4 (In respect to your lot), you shall become like them,
(the ones) against whom you shall become witness(es),
such is the fact: You have become bedfellows with sinners.
5 In those days, the prayers of the righteous ones shall reach unto the Lord;
but for all of you, your days shall arrive.
6 He shall read aloud regarding every aspect of your mischief,
in the presence of the Great Holy One.
Then your faces shall be covered with shame,
and he will cast out every deed which is built upon oppression.
7 Woe unto you, sinners, who are in the midst of the sea and on the dry land;
(you) whose records are (both) evil (and) against you.
8 Woe unto you who gain silver and gold by unjust means;
you will then say, 'We have grown rich and accumulated goods,
we have acquired everything that we have desired.
9 So now let us do whatever we like;
for we have gathered silver,
we have filled our treasuries (with money) like water.
And many are the laborers in our houses.
10 Your lies flow like water.
For your wealth shall not endure
but it shall take off from you quickly
for you have acquired it all unjustly,
and you shall be given over to a great curse.

Self-indulgence of the rich, origin of sins, more woes to sinners
Chapter 98

1 "Now I swear unto you, to the wise and to the foolish,
for you shall see many (things) upon the earth.
2 For you men shall put on more jewelry than women, and more multicolored ornaments than a virgin.
In sovereignty, in grandeur, and in authority, (in) silver, in gold, in clothing, in honor, and in edibles -
they shall be poured out like water.
3 For this reason, they are devoid of knowledge and wisdom, so they shall perish thereby together with their goods and together with all their glory and honor.
Then in dishonor, in slaughter, and in great misery, their spirits shall be cast away.
4 I have sworn unto you, sinners: In the same manner that a mountain has never turned into a servant, nor shall a hill (ever) become a maidservant of a woman; likewise, neither has sin been exported into the world. It is the people who have themselves invented it. And those who commit it shall come under a great curse.
5 Why is a woman not given (a child)?
On account of the deeds of her own hands would she die without children.
6 I swear to you, sinners, by the Holy Great One, that all your evil deeds are revealed in the heavens.

"None of your (deeds of injustice are covered and hidden. 7 Think not in your spirit, nor say in your hearts) that you neither know nor see all our sins being written down every day in the presence of the Most High. 8 From now on do know that all your injustices which you have committed unjustly are written down every day until the day of your judgment.

9 "Woe unto you, fools, for you shall perish
through your folly!
You do not listen to the wise, and you shall not receive good things.
10 And now do know that you are ready for the day
of destruction.
Hope not that you shall live, you sinners,
you who shall depart and die,
for you know for what (reason) you have been ready
for the day of the great judgment,
for the day of anguish and great shame for your spirits.
11 Woe unto you obstinate of heart, who do evil and devour blood!
From where (will you find) good things that you may eat, drink, and be satisfied?
Even from all the good things which the Lord, the Most High, stocked in plenitude upon the whole earth?
No peace exists for you!
12 Woe unto you who love unrighteousness!
Why do you have hopes for good things for yourselves?
Do know that you shall be given over into the hands of the righteous ones,
and they shall cut off your necks and slay you, and they shall not have compassion upon you.
13 Woe unto you who rejoice in the suffering of the righteous ones!
For no grave shall be dug for you.
14 Woe unto you who would set at nought the words of the righteous ones!
For you shall have no hope of life.
15 Woe unto you who write down false words and words of wickedness!
For they write down their lies so that they (the people) may commit wicked acts,
and they cause others to commit wicked acts.
16 They shall have no peace, but shall die quickly.

More woes unto the sinners
Chapter 99

1 "Woe unto you who cause wickedness!
Who glorify and honor false words,
you are lost, and you have no life of good things;
2 woe unto you who alter the words of truth
and pervert the eternal law!
They reckon themselves not guilty of sin,
they shall be trampled on upon the earth.

3 "In those days, be ready, you righteous ones, to raise up your prayers as a memorial, and place them as a testimony before the angels; and they (the angels) shall bring the sins of the sinners for a memorial before the Most High. 4 In those days, the nations shall be confounded, and the families of the nations shall rise in the day of the destruction of the sinners. 5 In those days, they (the women) shall become pregnant, but they (the sinners) shall come out and abort their infants and cast them out from their midst; they shall (also) abandon their (other) children, casting their infants out while they are still suckling. They shall neither return to them (their babes) nor have compassion upon their beloved ones.

6 "Again I swear to you, you sinners, for sin has been prepared for the day of unceasing blood. 7 (And those) who worship stones, and those who carve images of gold and of silver and of wood and of clay, and those who worship evil spirits and demons, and all kinds of idols not according to knowledge, they shall get no manner of help in them. 8 They shall become wicked on account of the folly of their hearts; their eyes will be blindfolded on account of the fear of their hearts, the visions of their dreams. 9 They shall become wicked and fearful through them, for they wrought all their deeds in falsehood and worshiped stone; so they shall perish instantly. 10 In those days, blessed are they all who accept the words of wisdom and understand them, to follow the path of the Most High; they shall walk in the path of his righteousness and not become wicked with the wicked; and they shall be saved.

11 "Woe unto you who spread evil to your neighbors!
For you shall be slain in Sheol.
12 Woe unto you who make sinful and deceitful measures!
Who acquire worldly knowledge,
for you shall be consumed by it.
13 Woe unto you who build your houses through the hard toil of others,
and your building materials are bricks and stones of sin,
I tell you, you have no peace.
14 Woe unto you who reject the foundations and the eternal inheritance of your (fore-) fathers!
Who shall pursue after the wind - the idol;
for there shall be no rest for you.
15 Woe unto you who engage in oppression and give aid to injustice!
Slaying your neighbors until the day of the great judgment,
because he shall debase your glory.
16 He will instill evil into your hearts.
He will arouse the anger of his spirit,
and destroy you all by the sword.
And all the holy and righteous ones shall remember your sins.

Final judgment of the sinners, the righteous, and the fallen angels. More woes
Chapter 100

1 "In those days, the father will be beaten together with his sons, in one place; and brothers shall fall together with their friends, in death, until a stream shall flow with their blood. 2 For a man shall not be able to withhold his hands from his sons nor from (his) sons' sons in order to kill them. Nor is it possible for the sinner to withhold his hands from his honored brother. From dawn until the sun sets, they shall slay each other. 3 The horse shall walk through the blood of sinners up to his chest; and the chariot shall sink down up to its top. 4 In those days, the angels shall descend into the secret places. They shall gather together into one place all those who gave aid to sin. And the Most High will arise on that day of judgment in order to execute a great judgment upon all the sinners. 5 He will set a guard of holy angels over all the righteous and holy ones, and they shall keep them as the apple of the eye until all evil and all sin are brought to an end. From that time on the righteous ones shall sleep a restful sleep, and there shall be no one to make them afraid. 6 Then the wise people shall see, and the sons of the earth shall give heed to all the words of this book. They shall know that their wealth shall not be able to save them at the place where their sins shall collapse.

7 "Woe unto you, sinners, when you oppress
the righteous ones, in the day of hard anguish,
and burn them with fire!
You shall be recompensed according to your deeds.
8 Woe unto you, you hard of heart,
who are watchful to devise evil!
Fear shall seize you,
and none shall come to your aid.
9 Woe unto you, sinners, because of the words of your hands!
On account of the deeds of your wicked ones,
in blazing flames worse than fire, it shall burn.

10 "And now, do know that your deeds shall be investigated - from the sun, from the moon, and from the stars - for heaven by the angels, on account of your sins (which) were committed upon the earth. The decree is with the righteous ones. 11 Every cloud, mist, dew, and rain shall witness against you for they shall all be withheld from you, from descending for you; and they shall not give heed, because of your sins. 12 So then offer gifts to the rain, that it be not hindered from descending for you; perhaps the dew may receive from you gold and silver in order to descend for sure. 13 (In) descending, they shall fall upon you - the frost and the snow with their cold, and all the winds of the snow with their scourges - and in those days you cannot stand before them.

The fear of God that nature teaches
Chapter 101

1 "Examine the heaven, you sons of heaven, and all the works of the Most High; and be afraid to do evil in his presence. 2 If he closes the windows of heaven and hinders the rain and the dew from descending upon the earth because of you, what will you do? 3 Or, if he sends his anger against you (and) your deeds, is it not you who would entreat him? Because you utter bold and hard (words) against his righteousness, you shall have no peace. 4 Do you not see the sailors of the ships, how their ships are tossed up and down by the billows and are shaken by the winds, and they become anxious? 5 On this account (it is evident that) they are seized by fear, for they will discharge all their valuable property - the goods that are with them - into the sea; they think in their hearts that the sea will swallow them up and they will perish in it. 6 ls not the entire sea and all her waters and all her movements the very work of the Most High? Has he not ordered her courses of action and her waters - (indeed) her totality - with sand? 7 At his rebuke they become frightened, and she dries up; then her fish die and all that is in her. But you, sinners, who are upon the earth, fear him not! 8 Did he not make the heaven and the earth and all that is in them? Who gave the knowledge of wisdom to all those who move upon the earth and in the sea? 9 Do not the sailors of the ships fear the sea? Yet the sinners do not fear the Most High.

Terror of the day of judgment: comfort to the suffering righteous ones
Chapter 102

1 "In those days, when he hurls out against you terror of fire, where shall you flee, and where shall you find safety? When he flings his word against you, will you not faint and fear? 2 All the luminaries shall faint with great fear; the whole earth shall faint and tremble and panic. 3 All the angels shall fulfill their orders. The children of the earth will seek to hide themselves from the presence of the Great Glory, trembling and confounded. You, sinners, you are accursed forever; there is no peace for you! 4 But you, souls of the righteous, fear not; and be hopeful, you souls that died in righteousness! 5 Be not sad because your souls have gone down into Sheol in sorrow; or (because) your flesh fared not well the earthly existence in accordance with your goodness; indeed the time you happened to be in existence was (a time of) sinners, a time of curse and a time of plague. 6 When you die, the sinners will speak over you: 'As we die, so do the righteous die. What then have they gained by their deeds? 7 Behold, like us they died in grief and in darkness, and what have they more than we? From now on we have become equal. 8 What will they receive or what will they see forever? Behold they have surely died; and from now on they shall never see light forever. 9 Now I tell you, sinners, you have satiated yourselves with food and drink, robbing and sin, impoverishing people and gaining property, and seeing good days. 10 Have you seen the righteous, how their end comes about, for no injustice is found upon them until their death? 11 But they perished and became like those who were not, and descended into Sheol - and their spirits tow - with anguish.

The two destinies of the righteous and the sinners: more woes unto the sinners
Chapter 103

1 "I now swear to you, righteous ones, by the glory of the Great One and by the glory of his kingdom; and I swear to you (even) by the Great One. 2 For know this mystery; I have read the tablets of heaven and have seen the holy writings, and I have understood the writing in them; and they are inscribed concerning you. 3 For all good things, and joy and honor are prepared for and written down for the souls of those who died in righteousness. Many and good things shall be given to you - the offshoot of your labors. Your lot exceeds even that of the living ones. 4 The spirits of those who died in righteousness shall live and rejoice; their spirits shall not perish, nor their memorial from before the face of the Great One unto all the generations of the world. Therefore, do not worry about their humiliation.

5 "Woe unto you sinners who are dead! When you are dead in the wealth of your sins, those who are like you will say of you, 'Happy are you sinners! (The sinners) have seen all their days. 6 They have died now in prosperity and wealth. They have not experienced struggle and battle in their lifetime. They have died in glory, and there was no judgment in their lifetime. 7 You yourselves know that they will bring your souls down to Sheol; and they shall experience evil and great tribulation - in a darkness, nets, and burning flame. 8 Your souls shall enter into the great judgment; it shall be a great judgment in all the generations of the world. Woe unto you, for there is no peace for you! 9 Now to the righteous and kind ones during their lifetime: Do not say, 'In the days of our toil, we have surely suffered hardships and have experienced every trouble. We have faced many evil things and have become consumed. We have died and become few, (characterized) by the littleness of our spirit. 10 We have been destroyed; and we have found none whatsoever to help us with a word or otherwise. We have been tortured and destroyed, and could not even hope to see life from one day to the other. 11 We hoped to be the head and have become the tail. We have moiled as we toiled, but had no authority over our own toil. We have become the victuals of the sinners and the oppressors; they have made their yoke heavy upon us. 12 Those who hate us, while goading us and encompassing us, have become masters over us. We have bowed our necks to those who hate us, but they had no pity on us. 13 We wanted to get away from them in order that we may escape and be at rest; but we found no place to which we might flee and be safe from them. 14 Then, in our tribulation, we brought a charge against them before the authorities, and cried out against those who were devouring us, but they (the authorities) neither would pay attention to our cries nor wish to listen to our voice. 15 But (on the contrary) they were assisting those who were robbing and devouring us, those who were causing us to diminish. They (the authorities) conceal their (the offenders) injustice and do not remove the yokes of those who devour us, scatter us, and murder us; they (the authorities) cover up our murder; and they (the authorities) do not remember (the fact) that they (the offenders) have lifted up their hands against us.

Chapter 104

1 "I swear unto you that in heaven the angels will remember you for good before the glory of the Great One; and your names shall be written before the glory of the Great One. 2 Be hopeful, because formerly you have pined away through evil and toil. But now you shall shine like the lights of heaven, and you shall be seen; and the windows of heaven shall be opened for you. Your cry shall be heard. 3 Cry for judgment, and it shall appear for you; for all your tribulations shall be (demanded) for investigation from the (responsible) authorities - from everyone who assisted those who plundered you. 4 Be hopeful, and do not abandon your hope, because there shall be a fire for you; you are about to be making a great rejoicing like the angels of heaven. 5 You shall not have to hide on the day of the great judgment, and you shall not be found as the sinners; but the eternal judgment shall be (far) away from you for all the generations of the world. 6 Now fear not, righteous ones, when you see the sinners waxing strong and flourishing; do not be partners with them, but keep far away from those who lean onto their own injustice; for you are to be partners with the good-hearted people of heaven. 7 Now, you sinners, even if you say, 'All our sins shall not be investigated or written down, nevertheless, all your sins are being written down every day. 8 So now I show unto you that light and darkness as well as day and night witness all your sins. 9 Do not become wicked in your hearts, or lie, or alter the words of a just verdict, or utter falsehood against the words of the Great, the Holy One, or give praise to your idols; for all your lies and all your wickedness are not for righteousness but for great sin. 10 And now I know this mystery: For they (the sinners) shall alter the just verdict and many sinners will take it to heart; they will speak evil words and lie, and they will invent fictitious stories and write out my Scriptures on the basis of their own words. 11 And would that they had written down all the words truthfully on the basis of their own speech, and neither alter nor take away from my words, all of which I testify to them from the beginning! 12 Again know another mystery!: that to the righteous and the wise shall be given the Scriptures of joy, for truth and great wisdom. 13 So to them shall be given the Scriptures; and they shall believe them and be glad in them; and all the righteous ones who learn from them the ways of truth shall rejoice.

Chapter 105

1 In those days, he says, "The Lord will be patient and cause the children of the earth to hear. Reveal it to them with your wisdom, for you are their guides; and (you are) a reward upon the whole earth. 2 Until I and my son are united with them forever in the upright paths in their lifetime and there shall be peace unto you, rejoice, you children of truth. Amen."

Chapter 106

1 And after some days my son, Methuselah, took a wife for his son Lamech and she became pregnant by him and bore him a son. 2 And his body was white as snow and red as a rose; the hair of his head as white as wool and his demdema beautiful; and as for his eyes, when he opened them the whole house glowed like the sun - (rather) the whole house glowed even more exceedingly. 3 And when he arose from the hands of the midwife, he opened his mouth and spoke to the Lord with righteousness. 4 And his father, Lamech, was afraid of him and fled and went to Methuselah his father; 5 and he said to him, "I have begotten a strange son: He is not like an (ordinary) human being, but he looks like the children of the angels of heaven to me; his form is different, and he is not like us. His eyes are like the rays of the sun, and his face glorious. 6 It does not seem to me that he is of me, but of angels; and I fear that a wondrous phenomenon may take place upon the earth in his days. 7 So I am beseeching you now, begging you in order that you may go to his (grand) father Enoch, our father, and learn from him the truth, for his dwelling place is among the angels." 8 When Methuselah heard the words of his son, he came to us at the ends of the earth; for he had heard that I was there. He cried aloud, and I heard his voice and came to him; and I said to him, "Behold, my son, here I am, why have you come here?" 9 Then he answered me and said, "On account of a great distress have I come to you, on account of a grievous vision have I come near here. 10 Now, my father, hear me: For unto my son Lamech a son has been born, one whose image and form are not like unto the characteristics of human beings; and his color is whiter than snow and redder than a rose, the hair of his head is whiter than white wool, and his eyes are like the rays of the sun; and (when) he opened his eyes the whole house lighted up. 11 And (when) he rose up in the hands of the midwife, he opened his mouth and blessed the Lord of heaven. 12 Then his father, Lamech, became afraid and fled, and he did not believe that he (the child) was of him but of the image of the angels of heaven. And behold, I have come to you in order that you may make me know the real truth." 13 Then I, Enoch, answered, saying to him, "The Lord will surely make new things upon the earth; and I have already seen this matter in a vision and made it known to you. For in the generation of Jared, my father, they transgressed the word of the Lord, (that is) the law of heaven." 14 And behold, they commit sin and transgress the commandment; they have united themselves with women and commit sin together with them; and they have married (wives) from among them, and begotten children by them. 15 There shall be a great destruction upon the earth; and there shall be a deluge and a great destruction for one year. 16 And this son who has been born unto you shall be left upon the earth; and his three sons shall be saved when they who are upon the earth are dead. 17 And upon the earth they shall give birth to giants, not of the spirit but of the flesh. There shall be a great plague upon the earth, and the earth shall be washed clean from all the corruption. 18 Now, make known to your son Lamech that the son who has been born is indeed righteous; and call his name Noah, for he shall be the remnant for you; and he and his sons shall be saved from the corruption which shall come upon the earth on account of all the sin and oppression that existed, and it will be fulfilled upon the earth, in his days. 19 After that there shall occur still greater oppression than that which was fulfilled upon the earth the first time; for I do know the mysteries of the holy ones; for he, the Lord, has revealed (them) to me and made me know - and I have read (them) in the heavenly tablets."

Chapter 107

1 Then I beheld the writing upon them that one generation shall be more wicked than the other, until a generation of righteous ones shall arise, wickedness shall perish, sin shall disappear from upon the earth, and every good thing shall come upon her. 2 "And now, my son, go and make it known to your son Lamech that this son who has been born is his son in truth - and not in falsehood." 3 And when Methuselah had heard the words of his father Enoch - for he revealed to him everything in secret - he returned (home). And he called the name of that son Noah, for he will comfort the earth after all the destruction.

Chapter 108

1 Another Book of Enoch - which he wrote for his son Methuselah and for those who will come after him, observing the law in the last days. 2 You who have observed (the law) shall wait patiently in all the days until (the time of) those who work evil is completed, and the power of the wicked ones is ended. 3 As for you, wait patiently until sin passes away, for the names of (the sinners) shall be blotted out from the Book of Life and the books of the Holy One; their seeds shall be destroyed forever and their spirits shall perish and die; they shall cry and lament in a place that is an invisible wilderness and burn in the fire - for there exists ground there (as upon the earth).

4 I also saw there something like an invisible cloud; (and) though I could see that it was completely dark yet I could not seethe flame of its fire because it was burning brightly; and there were some things like bright mountains which formed a ring (around it) and which were tossing it to and fro. 5 Then I asked one of the holy angels who was with me, saying to him, "What is this bright thing? For it is not a heaven but merely the flame of a fire which is burning - and a voice of weeping, crying, and lamenting as well as strong pain." 6 And he said unto me, "This place which you see, into it shall be taken the spirits of sinners, blasphemers, those who do evil, and those who alter all the things which the Lord has done through the mouth of the prophets, all of which have to be fulfilled. 7 For some of (these things) were written and sealed above in heaven so that the angels may read them (the things that are written) and know that which is about to befall the sinners, the spirits of the ones who err, as well as those who defiled their bodies, revenged themselves on God, and worked together with evil people. 8 Those who love God have loved neither gold nor silver, nor all the good things which are in the world, but have given over their bodies to suffering - 9 who from the time of their very being have not longed after earthly food, and who regarded themselves as a (mere) passing breath. And they have observed this matter, the Lord having put them through much testing; then he received their pure spirits so that they should bless his name. 10 And I have recounted in the books all their blessings. He has caused them to be recompensed, for they were all-found loving God more than the fire of their eternal souls; and while they were being trodden upon by evil people, experiencing abuse and insult by them, they continued blessing us. 11 So now I shall summon their spirits if they are born of light, and change those who are born in darkness -those whose bodies were not recompensed with honor as they deserved for their faithfulness. 12 I shall bring them out into the bright light, those who have loved my holy name, and seat them each one by one upon the throne of his honor; 13 and they shall be resplendent for ages that cannot be numbered; for the judgment of God is righteousness, because he will give faith - as well as the paths of truth - to the faithful ones in the resting place. 14 Then they shall see those who were born in darkness being taken into darkness, while the righteous ones shall be resplendent. 15 (The sinners) shall cry aloud, and they shall see the righteous ones being resplendent; they shall go to the place which was prescribed for them concerning the days and the seasons." Here ends the Revelation of the Secrets of Enoch.

Notes related to each chapter

Chapter 1
1. The author is addressing people who are convinced that they are the only righteous ones and that they will be victorious on the day of judgment, called the "day of tribulation" as in Zephaniah 1:15.

2. This is the term used to introduce the oracles of Balaam (see Numbers 23:7); the plural is attested in Aramaic only, Greek and Ethiopic have "his poem." "Righteous" is an epithet often given to Enoch (see 12:4; Testament of Levi 10:5; Testament of Dan 5:6; Testament of Benjamin 9:1). The "Holy One" is God. The Ethiopic is then preferred to the Greek: "He showed me and I myself heard the holy words of the saints and as I had heard everything from them, I knew by contemplating." The "this generation" is that of Enoch, the "distant generation" is that of the author.

4. God's camp is formed by the myriads of angels that surround him; compare Genesis 32:2-3. The Greek has "He will appear from His camp".

5. The "Watchers" are the angels, as in Daniel 4:14, and very often in the books of Enoch; see also Damascus Document 2:18. Here it is a question of the angels who have remained faithful (the Greek has: "the Watchers will be faithful"), but the Ethiopic text ("And great fear and trembling shall seize them") seems to have in view the guilty angels.

6. Reminiscence of biblical theophanies (see Isaiah 40: 4 and Psalms 68: 3).

8. "kindness shall be upon them" recalls the title of "sons of His Kindness" that the Essenes give themselves (see Hymns 4:32 and 11:9 and compare Luke 2:14).

9. It is this passage that Jude 14-15 quotes with a variant as a "prophecy of Enoch".

Chapter 2
1. Agronomic considerations are a feature of Enoch, especially in chapters 72-82. They are determined by concerns about the calendar and festivals. In the following development, the regular course of natural phenomena is invoked as a cosmological proof of God's existence. It also serves as a model of obedience to the divine will (compare Ecclesiasticus 16:26-28).

3. The "signs of summer" of the Aramaic correspond in Greek and Ethiopic to "summer". The Aramaic fragment has a gap that the versions do not allow to be filled. Instead of "pour out", the Ethiopic has "rest".

Chapter 3
1. The homeoteleuton "trees" (word repeated at the end of sentences) in 3:1 and 5:1 explains the omission in the Greek of the text attested in Ethiopic and partially in Aramaic. A list of fourteen evergreen trees is given by a 10th-century Byzantine compilation, the Geoponica (11: 1): palm, lemon, pine, laurel, etc. The Aramaic attests to the antiquity of this information.

Chapter 4
1. The Aramaic has "the sun is blazing and burning".

Chapter 5
1. Greek and Ethiopic: "all His works".

2-3. The Greek text and a few Aramaic fragments of these verses is somewhat different: "From year to year, forever, all His works happen in this way, as well as all the works they do for Him: they do not change, but everything seems to be done according to an order. See how the sea and the rivers do their works uniformly, and their works do not change nor depart from His word."

4. The contrasting picture of the fates promised to the ungodly and the righteous may have been inspired by Isaiah 65:11-15. The expression "hard-hearted" is found in the War Scrolls 14:7.

5. To "therefore" in Greek and Ethiopic corresponds in Aramaic to "Then". "Shall perish": the life of the ungodly will be shortened, and their death will be followed by eternal torment, both before and after the Last Judgment (compare 22:11).

6. Greek with Aramaic fragments: "Then your names will be dragged to the eternal curse of all the righteous. By you will curse all those who curse, and all sinners, the ungodly, will swear by you". We are talking here about a time before the Last Judgment. The overloading of the Greek in this verse is corrupt; perhaps it announced a final salvation of sinners, which would contradict the whole context.

7. The light symbolizes both knowledge and the salvation that comes from it. They shall inherit the earth: compare: Psalms 37:11 and Matthew 5:5.

9. The righteous will enjoy longevity (compare 10:17), and their earthly life will be followed by eternal bliss.

Chapter 6
1. Chapters 6-8 develop the mysterious episode of Genesis 4:1-4 to explain the origin of evil. The principle of the corruption of humanity is the civilizing contribution attributed to the angels. The author expresses the pessimism of an environment hostile to the techniques and refinements of civilization and reveals an ascetic tendency. The story of the fall of the angels also allows for the introduction of a reminder of the flood, presented as a prototype of the Last Judgment, and the introduction of the character of Enoch, shown as a superman with direct access to God.

3. In Greek: Shemēhaza. See the note to verse 7.

6. The episode is set in the time of Enoch's father Yered (Genesis 5:19), by virtue of an etymology linking this name to the verb yârad, "to go down." The name of Mount Hermon, in the far north of Palestine, is explained by the Hebrew ḩêrém, "anathema."

7. Three Aramaic fragments have made it possible to recognize almost all the angelic names, often distorted in the different versions. These names are assigned an order number in the Aramaic text, in the Syncellus text and in the parallel list given in chapter 69 of the Ethiopic book. The order of enumeration has been maintained in the versions with some variations; the discrepancy in the Akhmim manuscript is only apparent, for the scribe who found the names aligned in four columns recopied them in the order of the columns, and not that of the rows, beginning with the third name. Most of the angelic names end in -el which means "god" and highlight the cosmic functions assigned to their bearer. Here is a summary explanation of each of the Aramac names: Shemēhaza (Eth. Semyaz) means "the heavens of the Seer," "Seer" being a divine title substituted here for -el; this name is also given to the chief of the fallen angels by the Targum of the pseudo-Jonathan of Genesis 4:4; the Talmud (Niddah, 61a) says that he was the father of the giants Sihon and Og. Arataqif (Eth. Arakeb) is "the land of the Strong" (another divine title). The third name is incomplete; it has the adjective ram, "high," probably followed by a divine title beginning with t-; the Ethiopic text here gives "Rame'el." Kokabiel (Eth. Kokar'el) is formed on the name of the star (kokab). The Akhmim text and the Ethiopic present the name Tamiel which is difficult to explain in the absence of the Aramaic original. Ramiel (Eth. Ram'el) is formed on the name of thunder (ra῾am). Daniel means "God judge." Ziqiel (Eth. Ezeqel) is formed on the name of the shooting star (ziq). Baraqiel (Eth. Baraqyal) is formed on the name of lightning (baraq); compare Sibylline Trails 2, 215. Asael means "God made." The Akhmim text that gives "As'el" here mentions elsewhere (8:1; 9:6; 10:4,8; 13:1) the angel Azael, "God is mighty," a name close to that of Uzziel, which the Targum of the pseudo-Jonathan of Genesis 6:4 associates with Shemehaza. With the exception of 6:7, the Ethiopic text speaks of Azazel (from which the "Azalzel" of the Syncellus is similar here), probably resulting from a contamination with the name of the recipient of one of the goats of the Great Pardon (Leviticus 16:8). A text from Qumran (4Q180, 1, 6) refers to the corrupting angel as Azazel. Hermoni means "he of Hermon"; this name was unrecognizable in the various versions (Akhmim: "Arearos"; Syncellus: "Pharmaros"; Ethiopic: "Armaros"). Matariel is formed on the name for rain (maṬar). Ananiel is formed on the name of the cloud (῾anan). Setaouel is formed on the Aramaic name for winter (sétwâ). Shamshiel is formed on the Semitic name for sun (šeméš). Sahriel is formed on the Aramaic name for the moon (sehar). Toumiel means "perfection of God." Touriel is formed on the Aramaic name for rock (Ṭura). Yomiel is formed on the Aramaic name for day (yôm). Yehadiel is Aramaic for "God guides." There is nothing to match this name in the versions (Akhmim: "Atriel"; Syncellus: "Sariel"; Ethiopic: "Arazyal"). It is therefore probable that the name of the twentieth angel was not fixed.

8. The rank given to the leaders of the angels is the first in the Essene military hierarchy, which replicates that of Israel at the time of the Exodus (see Community Rule 2:21-22).

Chapter 7
1. Sexual intercourse defiled the angels (compare 9:8; 10:11 and 15:3-4). The argument reveals an encratic tendency of the author.

2. The Syncellus adds, "The giants begat the Nephilim, and the Nephilim had as their children (the) Elyud, and they grew according to their gigantism." The Nephilim come out of Genesis 6:4; on Elyud see the note on Jubilees 7:22. While this passage in Jubilees speaks of an exterminating war waged by three classes of giants, the Syncellus believes that there were three generations of monstrous creatures. The Aramaic does not seem to have any trace of this fable.

3. By stigmatizing the voracity of the giants, the author perhaps expresses his hatred of rich oppressors "devouring the people" (compare Psalm 53:5).

5. Drinking blood is a serious sin, compare Genesis 9:4.

Chapter 8
1. After a digression on the progeny of the angels, the verse returns to the origins of civilization, so that it seems to continue 7:1. The use of weapons and the devices of coquetry are first stigmatized. The initiative of the sin is attributed here to Azael (or As'el or Azazel, see note on 6:7), who thus appears as Shemēhaza's (Semyaz) peer; this is the position given to him by the Targum of the pseudo-Jonathan of Genesis 6:4. At the end of the verse, the Ethiopic adds "and the change of the world" (translated here as "alchemy"): this should be understood as "the change of adornment", the Ethiopic translator having committed a misunderstanding of the Greek kosmos.

3. Two Aramaic fragments from Qumran have made it possible to find the content of this verse, which is very distorted in the versions (the closest being that of the Syncellus). The Aramaic can be translated as: "Shemēhaza taught them charms and botany, Hermoni the exorcisms, magic, sorcery and tricks. Barakiel the astrology, Kokabiel the signs of the stars, Ziqiel the signs of the meteors, Arataqif the signs of the earth, Shamshiel the signs of the sun, Sahriel the signs of the moon, and they all began to reveal mysteries to their wives". The harmful revelations of the last six angels mentioned correspond to their names.

4. This verse must be linked to 7:2-6. Men are represented there less as sinners, corrupted by angelic inventions (compare 8:2), than as victims of the violence introduced by the giants.

Chapter 9
1. The archangel Michael is named in Daniel 10:13, Raphael in Tobit 3:16-17, Gabriel in Daniel 8:16. There has been some hesitation about the name of the second archangel in this list: Sariel (Eth. Surafel) attested in Aramaic and in the Greek of 20:6, is one of the four archangels of War Scrolls 9:15; he is also mentioned in the Palestinian Targum (Neofiti manuscript reading) of Genesis 32:25, as the name of Jacob's adversary at the ford of Yabboq ; Surufel or Suru'el is known only from the book of Enoch, IV Esdras 4:1, and later Jewish texts (the midrash Zemidbar Rabbâ 2:9, calls the archangels Michael, Gabriel, Suru'el, and Raphael). The Sariel-Suru'el alternation noted here perhaps explains the name of the archangel Suru'el known from the Talmud (Berakot, 51a) and from Coptic angelology.

3. The archangels intercede for men like the angel of Zechariah 1, 12.

4-5. Compare 1 Chronicles 29:10-12.

6. The prayer of the archangels combines the two motives previously invoked: the corruption taught by the angels and the abuses carried out by the giants, their sons.

Chapter 10
1. Instead of Suru'el the Akhmim text presents "Istrael" which could be a corruption of Sariel (see the note on 9:1), and certain readings of the Ethiopic a double name in which one can recognize a deformation of Sariel-Suru'el. Suru'el transmits the divine word to man as in IV Esdras. The son of Lamech is Noah. This passage (10-11) seems to have belonged to an apocalypse of Noah, of which other fragments are found in the Enochian compilation (chapters 10-11; 54, 7 – 55, 2; 65-68, 1; 106-107).

4. The Aramaic name "Daduel" (which became "Duda'el" in the Syncellus text and in Ethiopic) is formed on the Ararnaic name dâd, "udder." The country is so named after the mountains called "udders of the north» in the Greek Alexander Romance (3: 29), and the tradition goes back at least to the Epic of Gilgamesh (IX, 2, 9), which names the peaks between which the rising sun appears, at the very east of the earth, "twin mounts." The desert of Daduel is a particularly sinister landscape (compare 10: 5). It corresponds to the land "east of Eden" where Cain (Genesis 4:16) and already Adam (Genesis 3:24, and Jubilees 3:32, where "Elda" is probably a deformation of this fantastic toponym) are banished. Another explanation prefers the variant Duda'el and brings this name closer to the toponym Bet Hadudo, a locality situated at the entrance to the desert of Judah and where, according to the Mishna (Yomâ 6, 8), the journey of the goat let loose "to Azazel" on the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16: 10) ended.

7. Raphael's mission is consistent with his name, formed on the verb râphâ, "to heal" (compare Tobit 6:3-9; 11:7-8).

9. The word translated "bastards" is a transcription of the Hebrew mamzêr, which in Deuteronomy 23:3 refers to a half-breed unworthy to participate in the assemblies of Israel. The term is not unsuitable for giants, hybrids of women and divine beings. The mutual extermination of giants is reported in Jubilees 5:9 and 7:22. Gabriel, "the strong one of God," shares with Michael the function of exterminator.

12. "Seventy" is a vague number and does not allow us to guess what time span the author imagines between the condemnation of the angels and the Last Judgment.

14. The verse has been abbreviated in Greek and Ethiopic. Aramaic has: "Whoever is condemned to perdition from now on will be chained with them, and at the time of my judgment they will disappear forever."

16. The planting metaphor belongs to Essene phraseology (see Damascus Document 1:7). "Righteousness and truth" in the Greek text are express by a single Aramaic word, qšṭâ.

17. The punishment of the rebellious angels will be accompanied by the flood which will purify the earth soiled by the crimes of their sons. But we pass imperceptibly from this episode to an announcement of the Last Judgment of which the flood is the prefiguration. The "plantation of justice and truth" is no longer just a race born of Noah, but the society of the chosen ones who will survive the eschatological event and triumph in a pacified world. It is clear here that the righteous will not obtain personal immortality, but great longevity and posterity. "The years of their retirement". Aramaic has: "Their old age". Because of a misreading, the Greek and Ethiopic have substituted "their sabbaths".

18. A theme from prophetic eschatology; see Amos 9:13-14; Ezekiel 28:26. The tree that will be planted is the Tree of Life see 25:4-5.

19. Supernatural fertility is one of the characteristics of messianic times (compare 2 Baruch 29:5; and Talmud, Ketuboth, 3b). One source of this fabulation is Psalms 72, a royal poem applied to the Messiah.

Chapter 11
1. Compare Ezekiel 34:26.

2. Compare Psalms 85:11.

Chapter 12
1. "Before" links the narrative in which Enoch intervenes to the preceding Noahide fragment. The author is inspired by Genesis 5:24, understood as an allusion to an assumption of Enoch alive, and assumes that Enoch then joined the angels surrounding the throne of God.

2. Greek text has: "His works were with the Watchers, and his days (passed) with the Saints". "Works" and "days" may recall the title of Hesiod's poem.

4. Righteousness is an attribute more than once conferred on Enoch (see 1: 2). Enoch is called "scribe" because he wrote down the divine secrets of which he had the revelation and of which our book claims to communicate a part. This detail brings Enoch closer, on the one hand, to the legendary Mesopotamian king Enmeduranki, founder of the guild of diviners, and on the other hand to the angel Metatron of Judaism, to whom the Targum of pseudo-Jonathan on Genesis 5:24 assimilates Enoch ("Enoch ascended in person to the firmament, and he was called Metatron, the great scribe"). It should be noted that the rabbis sometimes fought against these fables concerning Enoch, which were so popular with the mînîm, or heterodox (see Midrash Berêshît Rabbah, 25: 1).

5. Greek: "You brought... for you..."

6. Doublet of 10: 12.

Chapter 13
1. Greek: "Enoch said to Azael, 'Go...'"

6. "length"; some interpret "longevity." The Greek may have committed a false meaning on the Aramaic 'arkâ which means "length" but also "reprieve."

7. Enoch stands at the foot of the mountain on whose summit the angels have bound themselves by oath (see 6:6). It is a region of the Danite territory well watered by the rivers that flow down from the Anti-Lebanon to the Lake of Swell.

8. This verse serves as an introduction to the vision of 14:8-23. But before that, the sentence of God against the fallen angels communicated to Enoch during his vision is transcribed.

9. Princeton Ethiopic has "Abelsya'el", EMML has "Abelsya'il", Aramaic has "Abelma'im", Greek has "Ebelsata". The Aramaic rendition is enforced by Testament of Levi 2: 3, naming "Abelmaum", corresponding to "Abelma'im" of the Aramaic fragment of that Testament. The locality is named in 2 Chronicles 16:4, and is identical to the Abel-Beth-Maachah of 1 Kings 15:20. It is precisely located southwest of Hermon. The toponym evokes the verb 'âbal, "to lament." This is why Testament of Levi 2:4 shows Levi weeping in this place over the sins of men, and our verse places the lamentation of the Watchers there. It is also the place where Levi, comparable in this respect to Enoch, has a visionary experience. "Sanser": Greek "Senisēl", Ethiopic "Sênisêr". It is a biblical designation of Hermon (see Deuteronomy 3: 9). Abelmaim is between the southern foothills of Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon.

Chapter 14
1. The verse serves as the title of chapters 14-16, but the announcement to the fallen angels is immediately interrupted by the vision of the divine dwelling places (14:8-23), which Enoch reports to guarantee the veracity of his message.

2. Compare to Qumran Hymns 1: 27-28.

9. "white marble": the Greek reading for hailstones is the same as in Ezekiel 38:22.

13. "There was nothing in it". Greek has "food" (trophē), Princeton Ethiopic and EMML have the word "pleasure" (Greek truphē).

15. The visionary enters the very heart of the heavenly palace. Jewish mystical literature has used similar descriptions of the divine abodes to symbolize the stages of spiritual ascent.

18. Passage inspired by Daniel 7:9-10 and Ezekiel 1. At the end of the verse, Greek has "mountain of Cherubim" instead of "voice of Cherubim."

22. The angels in charge of the divine service surround the throne, but remain at a respectful distance. The Ethiopic reading that recalls Ecclesiasticus 42:21 makes it clear that the divine court is not a council.

Chapter 15
3. See 9: 8.

4. The Greek and Ethiopic have "you have lusted with the blood of the people" Since there is no testimony elsewhere of angels being bloodthirsty, it will be assumed that an original aramaic demû, "likeness," has been confused by a translator with dam, "blood."

8. "Evil spirits" is generally preferred to the Akhmim manuscript reading, "vigorous," Greek iskura, which could render in a pinch a Semitic term meaning "heroes" or "tyrants". In Judaism, "evil spirits" is a frequent designation of demons. The author tries to explain why the evil powers did not disappear completely with the destruction of the giants, sons of the angels, and must continue to rage until the Last Judgment. The "evil spirits" are seen as the souls of the giants, wandering around after their death (compare 16:1). The same problem received a different solution in Jubilees 10:9: the flood annihilated only nine-tenths of the giants, equated with evil spirits, and left one-tenth remaining.

9. "they were created from the holy ones". Syncellus reading has "they were created from humans".

10. This verse, absent from the Syncellus, is sometimes taken to be a doublet of 7-8.

11. The Akhmim text and the Ethiopic have literally at the beginning of the verse, "the spirits of the giants wronging the clouds," and the Syncellus, "the spirits of the giants going out to graze." It will be assumed that the Aramaic original had a nominal form of the verb 'annî, "to oppress," and that one Greek translator read instead 'anân, "cloud," and another 'ânnîn, "flock." The reading "cause sorrow" is clearer than that of the Greek witnesses, "racing". Perhaps there was confusion between tromos, "trembling," and dromos, "running."

Chapter 16
1. "Age" renders the Greek aiōn, a translation of the Aramaic 'alma that Jewish terminology applies to all the time preceding the eschatological event ("this age" or "this world") and to that which will follow it ("the Age — or the world — that is coming").

Chapter 17
1. The first visionary journey of Enoch is in fact a summarized doublet of the second one, which is related in much more detail in chapters 21 - 36. Those who "lift up" Enoch are the angels who called him according to 12:3. Other angels are the beings of fire who are able to transform themselves into men (compare Judges 13:6-20). Enoch is first taken to heaven.

3. Chambers: this word comes out of Job 38:22. It is frequent in Enoch and in rabbinic literature. Compare War Scrolls 10:12.

4. Enoch's journey now appears to be on the horizontal plane. The "waters of life" are those of the great river that surrounds the earth, according to Hebrew cosmology. The "occidental fire" and the "river of fire" of verse 5 have been compared to the Philemon of the Greeks. But this is rather a naive explanation of the burning of the sky when the sun sets.

5-6. The "the great sea in the direction of the west" evokes the Okeanos of the Greeks, and the "great rivers" have been interpreted as a reference to the Styx, the Acheron and the Cocyte. But it may be a simple reminiscence of the ancient Canaanite cosmology, which has left so many traces in the Psalms and in Job, placing at the western end of the world the confluence of the mythical rivers that enclose the inhabited earth.

7. The description makes think of the Greek legend of the Hyperboreans. While Ethiopic has "mountains", Greek has "winds"; the Aramaic original rewaḥ (space) may have been confused with rûaḥ (wind) in one case, with rûm (height) in the other.

Chapter 18
1-2. "foundations of the earth": compare Job 38:6 (and Psalms 24:2). "winds" in this verse and the following is also found in the Greek reading, probably a misunderstanding of the Aramaic rûḥîn, which can refer to the winds, but also, and in Essene phraseology in particular, to the "spirits" or angels to whom the government of the meteors was attributed under divine supervision (compare Psalms 104:4; Jubilees 2:2; Hymns 1:11).

3. Mutilated verse in the Greek because of the repeated word "heaven".

4. The Ethiopic "I saw the winds which turn the heaven" stems probably from a confusion of the genitif plural ouranōn with the accusative singular ouranōn. The original text was probably: "I saw the spirits of the heavens that turn the sun's wheel"

5. The "paths of the angels" are the trajectories of the stars guided by the angels.

6. The orientation of the seven mountains indicates that they are in the northwestern part of the earth. We read a more precise description in chapter 24.

7. The Ethiopic "healing stone" is based on the Greek iaspidos, "of jasper" which has probably been confused with iaseōs, "of healing." Perhaps the Akhmim text presented the name "hyacinth."

8. Alabaster: the Greek and Ethiopic show a simple transcription of the Aramaic word (phouka). This mountain is the one that bears paradise and the Tree of Life, according to 24:3-4. The sapphire throne is the seat of God (see Ezekiel 1:26). The location of the divine dwelling place given in this passage perhaps helps to explain why the Essene tombs face north.

10. While Ethiopic has "beyond" (from Greek peran, the Greek text has "limit" (peras). "the heavens come together": The Greek text carries "will come to an end," and Aramaic "will be folded up". This is a likely allusion to an episode at the end of the world, since in the beginning God expanded the heavens (see Jeremiah 10:12).

11. Compare to 21: 7.

12. This place is thus a remnant of primordial chaos; "a desolate and terrible place" seems to be a paraphrase of the tohû-bohû of Genesis 1:2. From verse 12 to verse 16, compare 21:1. The idea of a judgment of the stars comes from Isaiah 34:4. The stars punished for disobeying God must be the planets. The wandering course of the planets has long disconcerted sky-watchers, and a sort of phobia of the planets has remained, very clear among the Mandaeans, see also Jude 13. Their traditional number of seven is kept here, although the Book of Astronomical Secrets (1 Enoch 72 - 82) strives to show that the sun and moon obey a divine law.

13. The angel is Uriel, according to 19:1.

16. Greek text has "bound for ten thousand years". Like the seventy generations of 10: 12, ten thousand years indicates a very long, but limited time.

Chapter 19
1. The hell of the angels (compare 2 Peter 2:4) is distinguished from the hell of the stars in the more detailed account of the second visionary journey, whereas this one seems to confuse them.

2. We do not speak elsewhere of the fate of women who let themselves be seduced by angels. In biblical Greek, "mermaid" sometimes translates the Hebrew words today rendered as "jackal" or "ostrich", but in the thought of our author they are demonic beings. Let us recall that in Greek mythology mermaids are winged and lustful demons from the underworld. Compare II Baruch 10: 8.

Chapter 20
1. There are seven archangels in Tobit 12:15, and Revelation of John 8:2, but 1 Enoch 9:1, lists only four, as does the War Scrolls 9:15-16.

2. The attributes of Suru'el are explained by his function as guide of Enoch through the world and the underworld (21: 5.9; 28: 2).

3. Raphael is the angel of Providence as in Tobit.

4. Raguel (a transcription of a Hebrew word meaning "friend of God") appears again in 23:4. It is attested to in Jewish angelology only at a late stage.

5. The two Greek texts have "chaos" instead of "people", due to a confusion between laos and chaos.

6. Ethiopic has "Saraqa'el" or "Araqiel". Greek has Sariel; see the note on 9:1.

7. Allusion to Genesis 3:24, indicating that Gabriel was considered the guardian of the Garden of Eden evacuated by man.

8. This verse is in square bracket as it is an addition of the Greek fragment of Codex Panopolitanus. The function of Remiel corresponds to its name, which includes the verb "to stand up". Compare IV Ezra 4:36.

Chapter 21
1. From verse 1 to verse 6, same episode as in 18:12-16. The Ethiopic "empty place" translates the Greek "chaos" (akataskeuastos) which translates the Hebrew bôhû of Genesis 1:2.

2. Description of the primitive chaos, where heaven and earth are not separated.

10. Enoch sees the realization of the eternal punishment of the fallen angels as announced to Noah (see 10:13) and to Enoch himself (see 14:5).

Chapter 22
1. In ancient Israelite representations, Sheol was a kind of great underground cavern where righteous and sinners led the same larval existence. This passage from Enoch shows the evolution of ideas. Not only are the righteous separated from sinners, but there is also talk of dividing the latter into different categories. Greek doctrines, and more particularly Orphic ones, seem to be at the origin of this evolution. The new representation of the underworld remains, however, subordinate to the traditional eschatology announcing the coming of the Last Judgment. It is while awaiting the divine intervention at the end of time that the spirits of the dead take up residence in the various caves where they are already beginning to experience the retribution of their earthly deeds. The location of the abode of the dead in the west has no biblical foundation. It does, however, correspond to certain Egyptian and Greek beliefs.

5. "people who were dead": Greek and Ethiopic have literally the plural "deads" instead of the singular which is required and which the Aramaic has come to attest.

7. By seeming to forget that the race of Cain had to disappear during the flood, the author takes Abel and the race of Cain as the prototypes of the righteous and the impious.

9. There are actually four caves, three of which are for sinners.

11. "those who curse": Greek has "accursed". The Ethiopic seems to have thought of the demons who punish the damned.

12. They are sinners, but since they have suffered during their lives, unlike the previous ones, their punishment will probably be less cruel.

13. Only the hypothesis of a gap allows us to account for the first sentence. But we do not know what the conduct of those who are thus condemned to remain in the cave even after the Last Judgment was over.

Chapter 23
4. "the fire which is burning in the direction of the west". This Ethiopic reading is not satisfactory, for it is hard to see how the lights could be lit at the place of their setting. Greek text has: "This stream of fire is the fire of the West that pursues (the luminaries of heaven)" It has been suggested that the Greek ekdiōkon, "who pursues," be corrected to ekdikon, "who chastises," but the chastisement of the stars has already been discussed (21:1-6) and in the summarized version of the visionary journey, the fire in the west does not appear to be a place of torment.

Chapter 24
1. The mountains of fire isolate paradise from the northwest (compare 18:6).

3. Instead of "fragrant", better in situation, the Greek has "magnificent" (eueidēs, instead of euōdēs).

4. The Tree of Life in Genesis 2:9 is likened to a palm tree, a symbol of beauty (Song of Songs 7:8-9) and an emblem of the just (Psalms 92:13).

Chapter 25
5. As in Genesis 2 - 3, the Tree of Life is a plant of youthfulness for those who eat of its fruit. The place where it is to be replanted is the new Jerusalem where the righteous will be gathered after the Last Judgment. "northeast": the Ethiopic reads the Greek word as borran; if we rather read the Greek word as boran (food), then the meaning of the sentence could be: "The fruit, those who are chosen for life will receive it as food".

6. After being sorted out at the Last Judgment, the righteous will find the fantastic longevity of the antediluvian patriarchs. Literally: "fragrance in their bones", Semitic expression.

Chapter 26
1. Jerusalem is the center of the earth as in Jubilees 8:19. The image of green shoots growing back from a cut tree is inspired by prophetic passages (Isaiah 11:1; Ezekiel 17:21-22). The plant metaphor is frequent in the Hymns (6:15-19; 7:19; 8:4-10). Here it applies to the righteous, from the mutilated trunk of Israel, who will be gathered on the Temple Mount to witness the punishment of their enemies.

2. The hill of the Temple and the waters of Siloam.

3. The Mount of Olives and the Kidron Valley.

4. The first ravine is the Tyropeon, between the Temple Hill and Golgotha. The second ravine is the Gehenna, which joins the Kidron Valley south of the Temple Hill.

Chapter 27
2. The bad reputation of Gehenna is established in the Old Testament: before the reign of Josiah, children were burned alive there according to 2 Kings 23:10, and Jeremiah (19:6-15) prophesies that God will punish the unfaithful of Jerusalem there. Here, it seems to be confused with the "valley of Jehoshaphat" where Joel (4: 2.12.14) places the theater of the Last Judgment. Later Gehenna was no longer, as in Enoch, the place of judgment, but that of the torment of the damned by fire (see IV Ezra 7:36; II Baruch 85:13; Matthew 5:22).

3. To the Ethiopic "merciful" corresponds in Greek "the ungodly," asebeis, which may be a mistake for eusebeis, "faithful."

Chapter 28
1. Greek: "in the midst of Mandobara"; Ethiopic: "in the midst of the Madbarâ Mountains." This is a transcription of the Aramaic madberâ, "desert," which has been mistaken for a place name. The following phrase has obviously been mutilated in the versions. The proposed rendition is conjectural.

2. Greek and Ethiopic: "(full of trees and sees) and water flowed from it". The text is probably corrupted. This chapter should describe an oasis.

Chapter 29
1. Greek: "in Badbara" Ethiopic: "in Madbarâ", see 28: 1.

2. Greek and Ethiopic: "trees of judgment." It has been suggested to render "fragrant trees."

Chapter 30
2. The versions have substituted a "tree" for the "reeds" of the Aramaic.

Chapter 31
1. The Greek simply transcribed the Aramaic name of "styrax".

2. The gap in the Aramaic cannot be filled by resorting to the Greek, which has an unintelligible expression at this point. The Ethiopic gives: "the whole forest was full of (trees) like sturdy almond trees".

Chapter 32
1. Greek and Ethiopic: "I saw seven mountains". The number seven must have been inspired to the translator by the description of the northwestern mountains in 24:2.

2. "Erythraean Sea". Aramaic has "Red Sea", which is the Indian Ocean. The crossing of the darkness (compare 17:6) indicates that the fantastic itinerary leaves the limits of the inhabited earth. The eastern darkness that separates it from paradise corresponds to the western fire that isolates the seven gem mountains and the Tree of Life (23). Instead of the "darkness" of the Aramaic, the Greek has the proper name Zōtiēl, and the Ethiopic which depends on it has "the angel Zutu'el." One wants to recognize in this a corruption of the Greek zophos, "darkness."

3. Paradise is in the far east. It is essentially the garden where the Tree of Knowledge grows (see Genesis 2:9) that our text separates from the Tree of Life, since the latter is planted on the divine mountain in the northwest while waiting for God to replant it in Jerusalem (24-25). The mention of "two trees" in the Greek is therefore surprising; as it is not confirmed by the Ethiopic, one can imagine that a copyist has been led by a reminiscence of the Bible which puts the two trees in the same garden.

6. See Genesis 3. The Greek gives "your father ate of it", and it is on these words that the text of the Akhmim manuscript ends. Only the Ethiopic now offers a continuous text, up to 97:6.

Chapter 33
1. Chapters 33 to 36 appear as a draft or summary of the treatise on astronomy which forms the third section of the book (chapters 72 - 82). They come after the account of the visionary journey because it serves as a guarantee of the authenticity of Enoch's astronomical teaching. The chapter serves as an introduction to Enoch's various journeys to the ends of the earth and highlights his discovery of the gates of the luminaries in the east. The great beasts may include Leviathan and Behemoth (see 60:7-10).

2. On the doors of the stars, see 36: 3, and 72: 2-37; 75: 4-9; on the doors of the winds, see 76.

3. The treatise on astronomy also makes Uriel the guide and instructor of Enoch (72:1; 79:6).

4. Compare 81: 1.

Chapter 36
2. The (big) gates are those of the winds and other meteors as in the north and south; the small gates are used by the stars.

Chapter 37
1. The expression "second time" links the set of Enoch's "Parables", characterized by their eschatological visions, to the "parables" spoken of in the preamble (see note on 1:2). The second section of the book is thus a continuation of the first: the eschatological revelations were given to Enoch at his assumption. The genealogy of Enoch is that of Genesis 5:2-18.

2. "who dwell in the earth", literally: "who dwell in the dry". This is a constant locution in the "Parables." In the Bible it means dry land, as opposed to the sea (Genesis 1:9; Psalms 66:6); it is also found in the Hymns (3:31; 8:4). The "Holy One" is God as in 1:3-4. The "Lord of Spirits" is the most common divine title in the "Parables." It has no exact biblical precedent (see, however, 2 Maccabees 3:24), but a very similar expression is found in Hymns 10:8). It is probably an adaptation of the biblical title conventionally translated "Yahweh of the armies"; "armies" has been seen as a designation of the legions of angels, or "spirits," surrounding the deity (see Hymns 13: 8, and War Scrolls 12: 9).

3. The "those of former time" could be the oldest followers of the Community (compare Damascus Document 8:16-18), and the "those of latter days" those who are said in Damascus Document 4:7 to have "entered the Covenant after them". The "those of latter days" are still so called because they are believed to be living in the last times before the eschatological event (Damascus Document 1: 12).").

4. "Lot" is a very characteristic term in Essene phraseology to signify the category, good or bad, to which any individual belongs (see, e.g., Community Rule 2:2: "God's lot," and 2:5: "Belial's lot").

5. "Three things": Greek has literally: "three parables" as in 1: 2.

Chapter 38
1. The Community of the Righteous (i.e. the followers) leads a hidden existence. The author expects the eschatological event to bring it out into the open, in glory.

2. Like "Chosen" and "Son of Man", "Righteous" seems to be a title given to the messianic figure whose advent is hoped for (compare 47:1; 53:6). This epithet could bring to mind the "Servant of Yahweh" (Isaiah 53:11). It is also a title of Enoch himself (see note on 1:2). "Hung": a similar turn of phrase is found in Isaiah 22:24 and Judith 8:24. The metaphor of light as a symbol of salvation is frequent and of biblical origin (see Isaiah 9:1). It would be better not to have been born: compare Matthew 26: 24.

4. The identification of the great ones of this world with the sinners who are to be condemned is revealing of the sectarian spirit (see notes on 6:1 and 7:3). Possessors of the earth: compare Matthew 5:5. It has been suggested that the end of the verse be corrected to read: "for the Lord of the Spirits will have shown his light on the face of the righteous".

6. The power of intercession is recognized in the righteous, as in Enoch himself according to 13:3-7.

Chapter 39
1. The reminder of the fall of the angels (see chapter 6) again serves as an introduction to the account of heavenly visions.

2. The "letters" or "books" received by Enoch are the text of the condemnation that God has pronounced against the angels and that Enoch must communicate to them. The verse is allusive, but becomes clearer in the light of 13:3-14:1.

3. Compare 14:8-9. The assumption of Enoch is more clearly likened here to that of Elijah according to 2 Kings 2:1. It should be noted that Enoch does not yet enter the depths of heaven where the palace of God is located. The accomplishment of his ascension is told in chapter 71.

4. "Holy" is often amphibological. Here, it applies to the righteous, whereas in verse 5 the "Saints" are the angels. Enoch discovers the heavenly dwellings that the righteous dead will occupy before the Last Judgment, since they can still intercede for the living (verse 5).

5. The image of justice flowing like water comes from Amos 5:24.

6. One group of manuscripts gives "the elect ones" instead of "the Elect One" and presents the possessives that follow in the plural, not the singular. But the best manuscripts attest to the singular. This messianic title appears fifteen times in the "Parables" and is hardly frequent outside (see Testament of Benjamin 11:4; Apocalypse of Abraham 31:1). It is given to the character called elsewhere "Righteous" (see 38:2) and "Son of Man" (see 46:2) and carries several connotations: 1. it is an old royal title (2 Samuel 21:6; Psalms, 89:4) transferable consequently to the Messiah, king of the last times, although the "Parables" ignore the Davidic Messiah; 2. it indicates that the character represents the men "chosen" by God, just as "the Righteous One" embodies the collectivity of the "righteous"; 3. the title may have made it possible to combine the messianic representation with that of the "suffering servant" (see Isaiah 42:1).

7. "Before him" is equivocal, as the pronoun can refer to the Elect One or to the Lord. The splendor of the elect seems to express the belief, of Greek origin, in an astral immortality (compare 43; Daniel 12:3; II Baruch, 51:10). Since Ethiopic verbs can translate imperfects as well as futures, it is not always easy to distinguish what in the vision refers to the time before the Judgment from what concerns the future, after the Judgment.

12. "Those who do not slumber" are the angels, or "Watchers", in whose mouth a paraphrase of the three holy of Isaiah 6: 3 is put.

Chapter 40
1. These are the four archangels, as in 9:1 (see note on 20:1), but here Uriel is replaced by Phanuel (see note on verse 9).

7. "demons", literally: satans. The role of the "Satans" is analogous to that of the "Satan" of Job 1:6ff. and Zechariah 3:1-2, which directly inspires the verse.

9. The name Phanuel, which reappears in 54:6; 71:8-9:13, is not very common outside the "Parables" (see the Slavonic version of III Baruch 2:5). It may be another designation of the archangel Suri'el (see note on 9:1) whom the Talmud (Berakot 51a) calls "the angel of the Face" (Hebrew pên). The function attributed to him here reveals a pun on the Hebrew verb pânâh, Aramaic penâ, "to turn, to convert."

Chapter 41
1. The "kingdom" (of heavens) will be divided into "mansions" at the Last Judgment. The weighing of souls is a motif of Egyptian origin that passed into the sapiential literature of Israel (see Job 31:6; Proverbs 16:2; 21:2).

3. Here begins a brief summary of Enoch's astronomical revelations, quite comparable in wording and function to that of chapters 33 - 36 (see notes to those chapters).

4. The primordial cloud appears to come from an interpretation of the mysterious 'êd, "flood" (?), of Genesis 2:6.

5. The "glory" is the light that the sun gives to the moon (compare 78:10). "in accordance with an oath": the end of the verse is usually corrected. Indeed the best manuscripts give: "that they have dwelt", as some Ethiopic readings have confused the Greek hōrkisthēsan (to "swear", so oath) with ōikisthēsan (to "dwell").

8. The opposition between light and darkness, founded in biblical cosmology (Genesis 1:4), allows us to express a moral dualism opposing the predestined lot of the righteous to that of sinners.

9. The unceasing and regular movement of the heavenly bodies manifests the immutability of God's wills, served by the angels, or "princes. According to the context, the divine wills are no less rigid with regard to human destinies.

Chapter 42
1 The heavenly residence of personified Wisdom is a biblical notion (see Proverbs 8:12ff.). Here the thought is more pessimistic: Wisdom wanted to take up residence on earth, but was not received, while her antithesis, Violence, was enthusiastically welcomed by men. It is sometimes thought that this short poem interrupts the astronomical development. It seems, however, that the author wanted to point out the dwellings of Wisdom and Violence on the same level as the "chambers" of the stars and the winds.

Chapter 43
2. According to the number of the angels: the expression evokes the Qumran text, and the Greek version, of Deuteronomy 32:8 (Massoretic text: "according to the number of the sons of Israel"). This connection suggests that the angels, guides of the stars, also command the destinies of the nations (compare Ecclesiasticus 17:17).

4. The celestial lights materialize the glory of the righteous ones raised to heaven after their death. This belief is of Pythagorean origin.

Chapter 44
1. A Greek doctrine makes lightning the projection of celestial bodies. "Remain with them" is the reading of the manuscript n. 9 of Kebran Gabriel. The other readings have: "cannot leave their parable". Perhaps we should give to parable the meaning that this word has in the neo-Platonic astronomical vocabulary, that of astral "conjunction". The word "conjunction" could be translation of the Ethiopic word mesâlê, "said to be allegorical" (in Hebrew, mâshâl), assuming that the translator has committed a misreading of the Greek parabolē which usually renders the Hebrew mâshâl, but which in Neoplatonic astronomical vocabulary denotes the conjunction" of the stars.

Chapter 45
2. Therefore, the bliss promised to the righteous consists on the one hand of a blissful earthly life, and on the other hand of heavenly immortality. Compare verses 4 and 5.

3. The throne of glory is the throne of God himself which the Elect One will occupy on the day of judgment, compare 51:3; 61:8; this idea is probably based on an interpretation of Psalms 110:1. The "resting places" are those reserved for sinners, the same term in 38:2. While seeing the power of God and his Elect One manifested, the ungodly will not come to resignation.

4. The metamorphosis of heaven and earth (verse 5) is announced in Isaiah 66:22.

Chapter 46
1. "The time before time: in Greek, literally "the head of the days". This expression is usually understood as synonymous with the "elder of days" of Daniel 7:9, but "head" can figuratively mean the origin or the sum. The person so designated corresponds in any case to the old man of Daniel 7:9.

3. "Son of man" can refer to a human being in general, and this could be the case in verse 2, but its use to designate the eschatological character in the second and third "parables" of Enoch comes from Daniel 7:13. What was for the author of Daniel 7 a pure symbol, representing the people of the saints in the heavenly vision, seems to have become for the author of Enoch an object of faith: a heavenly being close to God. His identity with the Elect One is evident from the text of this verse.

4. "who would remove the kings": compare Isaiah 14:9. "He shall loosen the reins of the strong": compare Job 12:18. "crush the teeth of the sinners" refers to Psalms 3:8.

5. "neither do they obey him, the source of their kingship"; compare Daniel 2: 21; Wisdom of Solomon 6: 1-3.

7. We find the biblical commonplace of the condemnation of excessiveness behind this satire of earthly beings attempting to attack the stars. The same complaint is addressed to Antiochus Epiphanes in Daniel 7:10, but in our verse, as in Daniel's, the stars can represent the faithful (compare 38:4 and 39:7). Verse 8 expresses the same idea in a more prosaic way. The polemic against idolatry, which begins at the end of the verse, is not very frequent in the book of Enoch (see however 99:7-9).

Chapter 47
1. The "the prayers of the righteous ascended into heaven", recalling 8:4, suggests that the judgment is indeed of the type of the flood. The "righteous" is often taken to be a collective noun in the singular. But it should be noted that the "Parables" take care to distinguish the "elects" from the "Elect", even if the latter represents them in some way. We can therefore envisage an individual interpretation for the "righteous". The martyrdom he seems to have suffered sums up the persecution endured by the righteous, his followers.

2. The "holy ones" are the angels, whose intercession Enoch sees granted in advance (compare 15:2).

3. The "books of the living" could be the registers in which God has the works of the living recorded for the ultimate Judgment (compare Daniel 7:10). But it is rather a list of men who are predestined to survive the Judgment, according to Daniel 12:1.

4. At the beginning of the verse, the variant "righteous", held to be a collective singular, has led to the interpretation of the text, according to II Baruch 23:4-5, as an announcement of the moment when all the righteous who are to be born before the fulfillment of the times will be born. According to the end of the verse, the Last Judgment will be a revenge for the persecution of the righteous and the martyrdom of the "Righteous".

Chapter 48
1. The "fountain of righteousness" materializes the idea expressed in 39:5. The verse is inspired by Isaiah 55:1.

2. One could also translate the last words: "before the beginning of days", compare verse 3, but the parallelism of verse 2 pleads for the translation retained.

3. The belief in the pre-existence of the name of the Messiah is well known in Pharisaic Judaism. "even before the creation of the sun and the moon": the Greek text has "Before the sun and the signs were created" where "signs" are the signs of the zodiac.

4. The "staff" as a symbol of help is found in Psalm 23:4, the "may lean on him" in Psalms 18:19. Here the symbols shift from God to the Son of man. "The light of the gentiles" suggests an identification of the Son of Man with Isaiah's "servant of Iahweh" (42:6; 49:6).

6. "and for eternity": the Ethiopic 'eska la'âlam (from the Greek mekri tou aiōnos, "until the age") is problematic here, since the Son of Man will cease to be hidden when the Judgment comes, compare 16:1; one possible solution would be to translate: "until the advent of the Century "

7. While remaining hidden from God, the Son of Man has made himself known to a few humans before the Last Judgment, and these are the "elects ones" and the "only ones". If the subject of the verb "to preserve" is indeed the "Son of man", it must be admitted that he also exercises an invisible protection over them. "it is his good pleasure that they have life" has then for subject the "Son of man". A variant of the last line gives: "He became the avenger of their life".

8. The beginning of the Greek version has been defaced, bazentu, "in that [ ]-there" having been omitted because of its graphic resemblance to bakantu, "in vain." The idea is repeated in chapter 63.

9. The images come from Exodus 15: 7.10.

10. "there shall be an obstacle": this is Kebran Gabriel's manuscript n. 9 reading. Princeton Ethiopic and EMML has: "there will be a rest." "The Lord of the Spirits and His Messiah": compare Psalms 2:2. The eschatological figure is again called "Messiah" (Ethiopic masib, from Greek christos) in 52:4.

Chapter 49
1-2. The power of the Messiah lies in his wisdom, that is, in the knowledge of the divine mysteries, compare 46: 3; 51: 3.

3. Reminiscent of Isaiah 11:2. "Those who have fallen asleep in righteousness" are the righteous departed. Their "spirit" must be the spirit of truth spoken of in the Community Rule 4:21.

4. The Messiah, who will come armed with divine omniscience, cannot be deceived at the Judgment.

Chapter 50
2-3. Those who will be offered in extremis the possibility of conversion are probably the pagans. One could then understand "the deeds of their hands" as an allusion to idols. They will be preserved from eternal torment, without more, and by pure grace.

Chapter 51
1. The Greek reading adds: "Perdition will give back what it owes". "Perdition" goes back to the Hebrew 'abaddôn (see Psalms 88:12), paralleled by Sheol, or Sheol, in Job 26:6. The eschatology of this chapter is consistent with Daniel 12:2.

4. Reminiscent of Psalms 114:4.

Chapter 52
1. This development is introduced by the allusion to the leaping mountains of 51:4. The author seems to have been thinking of the six fabulous mountains of the west which surround the divine throne and which Enoch meets in his visionary journey (18:6-7; 24:2-3). If we now speak of mountains of metal, and not of precious stones, it may be partly by virtue of a reminiscence of Daniel 2:31-45, where the metals represent the empires of the earth, and partly to allow for a polemic against money and metallurgy (compare 8:1).

4. The mountains will serve to manifest the power of the Messiah by giving way to him. The Messiah's empire will be universal.

5. This verse perhaps announces the supreme initiation of Enoch, in chapter 71.

6. The messianic parousia will have all the characteristics of theophany, see note on 1:6 and Micah 1:3-4.

9. As the ungodly have denied the name of the Lord, so on the day of judgment the metals (i.e., silver and weapons) in which the great ones of this world saw the pledges of their salvation will be denied and will become the pledges of their perdition.

Chapter 53
1. The chasm that cannot be filled is reminiscent of the Valley of Jehoshaphat in Joel 4, the place of the Last Judgment (see note on 27:2). The recipient of the gifts seems to be the Elect One, who will not be corrupted (compare 52:7).

2. "they shall perish eternally". We have the variant "they shall not perish". It has been discussed if the negation would not be preferable, as it implies the idea that the ungodly will not find relief in death.

3. Satan appears here as the leader of the demons that will torment sinners after the judgment. These demons seem to be identified with the angels of punishment.

5. The kings and the great are the sinners par excellence.

6. See 38: 1.

7. Back to the image in chapter 52.

Chapter 54
1. The "valley" is not Gehenna, mentioned in 27:2, but the place, outside the limits of the inhabited earth, where the visionary journey places the punishment of angels (see 21:7-10).

5. In Ethiopic, Azaz'el is a combination of "Azael" and "Azaz'el" (see note on 6: 7). He is here the only leader of the fallen angels. The damned will be covered with stones like Azaz'el himself according to 10:5.

6. The character of Satan as the primary principle of all evil and sin is foreign to the first part of Enoch, which seems to attribute the corruption of humanity to the fallen angels alone. The doctrine of this passage is similar to that of Wisdom of Solomon 2:24, but perhaps the name "armies of Azaz'el" refers to human sinners, who are assimilated to the fallen angels. In that case Satan could be the leader of the demons who survived the annihilation of the Watchers and their sons, as is the Mastema of the Jubilees 10:8. Compare also the role of Belial in the writings of Qumran and the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (see note on Testament of Reuben 4:7).

7. The reference to the punishment of the rebellious angels leads to a reminder of the flood, the prototype of the coming judgment (see note on 10:17). The description of the flood is consistent with Genesis 7:11.

8. Jewish tradition mentions this sex of the cosmic waters several times. For example in the Talmud of Jerusalem, Berakot 9, 14a: "the waters above are masculine and the waters below are feminine".

Chapter 55
1-2. Compare Genesis 8:21 and 9:11-17. The "sign" is the rainbow.

3. This development is intended to resolve the contradiction that could be felt between the announcement of an eschatological catastrophe and the divine promise formulated in Genesis 9:11. After the flood, God granted man a grace that he will not renew.

Chapter 56
3. The expression "their beloved ones" applies to the offspring of the fallen angels at 10:12; 12:6; 14:6. But here we are talking about sinners in general, who are the "elect ones" of the powers of evil, as the righteous ones are the "elect ones" of God.

5. This allusion seems to be the only reference in the "Parables" of Enoch to a historical reality. It is in 40 B.C. that the Parthian army of Pacoros invaded Palestine occupied by the Romans and supported the party of Antigonus, son of Aristobulus II and pretender to the pontificate, against the high priest Hyrcan II his uncle, Herod and Rome. But other dating have been proposed. The "Parthians" represent, in any case, the pagan powers raised up by the angels to come and lay siege to Jerusalem, which will end with the definitive victory of the people of God. This eschatological idea, exceptional in the "Parables", is a commonplace in biblical prophecy of the time of the Exile: see in particular Ezekiel 38:15-16 and Zechariah 14:2-3.

7. The horses are a reminiscence of Zechariah 14:15, perhaps revived by the memory of the Parthian cavalry. The enemies will kill each other as in Ezekiel 38:21; Zechariah 14:13.

Chapter 57
1. This chapter, which is one with the previous one, seems to announce the return of the dispersed Israelites, in accordance with Isaiah 27:13; Zechariah 10:10. "From the east and from the west" as in Isaiah 43:5. The allusion to chariots is problematic, since this is usually one of the symbols of the pagans. The Ethiopic word could also be translated as "wheels" and then we could wonder if this is not a reference to the return of God's chariot to the Temple, as in Ezekiel 43:2-5.

2. The gathering in Jerusalem has a cosmic resonance, as in Joel 4:16.

Chapter 58
2. This whole chapter is an amplification of themes already encountered. For the word "portion", see "lot" in 37: 4; 45: 2; 46: 3; 48: 7.

3. The light is the symbol of the happiness promised to the righteous as in 38: 4; 45: 4; 50: 1.

6. The perpetual light as in Isaiah 60:19-20; Community Rule 4:6-8.

Chapter 59
1. "Their judgments": the judgment they exercise. The stars govern the times, and the meteors manifest God's favor or wrath to humans (compare Job 36:31).

2. "Dwellings": presumably this word is due to a translation error; it would have read the Greek oikēmata instead of krimata, "judgments."

Chapter 60
1. Verse 8 proves that the visionary is Noah, and the initial reference to "the year five hundred" makes sense only for Noah (compare Genesis 5:32; Jubilees 4:33). It is therefore a new fragment of a Noahide apocalypse (see note on 10:1). The compiler has clumsily tried to append it to the apocalypse of Enoch by means of the words put between asterisks. The fourteenth day of the seventh month is the eve of the Feast of Tabernacles. The celestial agitation represents the prodromes of the deluge.

4. The second angel is the one that the Syncellus calls Uriel in 10: 1.

6. The end of the verse seems to refer to the Noahide covenant (Genesis 9:9).

7. "That day" surely does not refer to the day of the vision, but to the day of the year, month or week that corresponds to it. It should be noted that in the Essene calendar, the fourteenth day of the seventh month falls on Tuesday, the third day of the week. It was on the third day of creation that God separated the earth and the waters (Genesis 1:10), and this is what the separation of Behemoth and Leviathan seems to recall. The two dragons are described one after the other in Job 40:15-24 and 25-32, from which it appears that Behemoth inhabits the earth and Leviathan the waters. According to IV Ezra 6:49-52, Behemoth represents the solid element, Leviathan the liquid element, and they were separated by God. But II Baruch 29:4 and rabbinic traditions place the creation of the dragons on the fifth day (according to Genesis 1:21). The text expresses a different idea: the monsters separated on the third day of the week must have existed previously welded together. The author may have been inspired by Job 40:19, who calls Behemoth "the first of God's creatures".

8. "invisible"; recall that the Greek aoratos, which should be so rendered, itself renders the Hebrew tôhû in Genesis 1:2. Some think a misreading for aoristos, "unlimited." The name of the desert appears in forms that vary according to the manuscripts: "Dundayn", "Dunudayn", "Dêdayn"... One can recognize in it a transcription of the Aramaic daddayin, "two teats", that is to say the twin mounts serving as gates to the sun, at the extreme east of the inhabited land, it is the country called Duda'el in 10:4 (see note). This place of relegation, perfectly dry, is appropriate for the dragon who represents the earth, and to note this detail, the author drew on Psalms 50:10. The desert of "Daadian", east of Eden, must have been seen by Enoch, the visionary's great-grandfather, during his journey to the ends of the earth. But whereas according to 32:2-6, the Garden of Eden seems uninhabited since Adam's expulsion, it appears here as a dwelling place for the righteous and the holy.

10. "Son of man" is used here as in Ezekiel 2:1, to challenge the visionary. The angel's reluctance suggests that certain speculations about creation could not be disclosed without due consideration. But verses 11-23 are only a summary of the astronomical treatise of chapters 72-82, of which we have already encountered sketches (33-36; 59). This is why it is assumed that the angel's revelation about Behemoth and Leviathan, which is in fact one of the mysteries of creation, has been censored and replaced by the banal dissertation of verses 11-23. All that remains is verse 24, itself truncated.

12. On "openings of the winds", see Chapter 76.

13-15. The solidarity of thunder and lightning is explained by their common obedience to the same "spirit" or angelic guide. "the reservoir of their moments (of thunderings) is like the sand" perhaps means that the time between the thunder and the lightning is measured by the "spirit" by means of an hourglass.

16. Divine Providence holds back the sea, compare Job 38:8-11. The sea is regarded as the reservoir where the springs of the mountains are fed, because the biblical cosmology believes in a communication between the sea and the "waters below".

19. If the "mist" is distinguished from other meteors, it is perhaps because it is one of the accessories of theophanies (see 1 Kings 7:12). "its reservoir is itself an angel". The Ethiopic translator may have confused the present participle "gathering" with the noun "gathering place" or "reservoir", and so, instead of having "who is gathering is an angel", we have "its resevoir is an angel".

20. On the habitat of the dew, see 34: 1-2; 36: 1.

21. The verse is surely unfinished.

23. The Garden of the Righteous is the paradise, located in the east of the earth.

24. This verse is a remnant of the abolished revelation concerning Behemoth and Leviathan. It is itself mutilated, but surely it can be understood that the dragons will feed the righteous in the banquet that will be served to them at the end of time, in accordance with a well attested tradition (IV Ezra 6:52; II Baruch 29:4; Talmud, Baba Bathra 75a, etc.). Greek text gives "These two dragons are prepared for the great day of God and will feed...", but most Ethiopic manuscripts give: "are worthy of being fed," a correction caused by the amputation of the verse.

25. This verse is directly related to verse 6, from which it was separated by the insertion of the noachic fragment. The reworking has resulted in a corruption of the text.

Chapter 61
1. The angels with long ropes recall the vision in Zechariah 2:1-6 where a "man", who is an angel, holds the measuring line used to measure the ground of the new temple. The angels go north, the place of paradise (see notes on 18:8 and 32:3), to measure the land that will be given to the righteous.

5. Even those who have died without burial will rise again. One wonders if "these measurements" at the beginning of the verse is not the result of a confusion with "those who measure". The "day of the Elect One": compare IV Esdras 13:52.

6-7. The Messiah, called here the "Elect One" (see 39:6; 45:3), will be glorified by the angels.

8. The "throne of glory" is the throne of God himself which the Elect One will occupy for the judgment (compare 45:3 and 62:2). On the reason for the weighing, see 41:1 and note.

9. The "ways" are "secret" because the righteous did not manifest themselves during their earthly life. "The name of the Lord": the intercalation of a buffer word, such as "name", is a very frequent procedure in the Targums. "their conduct": literally "their trace"; this is another way of designating the earthly conduct of the righteous.

10. The angelic spirits will join their praise to that of the righteous. The "Ophanim" are the wheels of the divine chariot of Ezekiel 1:15-21; personified, they became a class of angels, like the Cherubim (see note on Genesis 3:24) and the Seraphim (Isaiah 6:2); the "Ophanim" are also found among the angels, entrusted with praising the Lord according to the Talmud (Hagigah 12 b). Here the "Elect One" is placed among the angels.

12. "All the vigilant": the angels called "Watchers" (see 1: 5). The "spirits of light", angels and glorified elect, are already fully capable of praising the Lord, "all flesh", that is to say, those who have passed through the Judgment, will receive the same capacity.

13. Only the righteous know the secrets of creation that were revealed to them by Enoch.

Chapter 62
1. "lift up your eyebrows": this expression denoting arrogance (Psalms 75:6) must be used here in irony.

2. "Lord of the Spirits has sat down". Greek has: "The Lord of the Spirits will have made him sit". There is some doubt as to who owns the throne: it may be the Elect One or the Lord. "The spirit of righteouness": compare 46:3; 53:6. The end of the verse is a reminiscence of Isaiah 11:4; compare also IV Ezra 13:9-10.

4. The passage draws on Isaiah 13:8, but perhaps also on the Hymns (3:6-19).

5. The Ethiopic expression used here for "son of man" is exceptional in the "Parables" and could refer to a simple human being, even a common man, which would be in contrast to the elevation he receives. The variant "son of a woman" goes in the same direction.

6. The recognition of the Son of Man by kings will come too late, compare 63. The "him who rules over everything, him who has been concealed" is the Lord, not the Son of man.

7. Reference to the pre-existence of the Messiah, see 39:6 and 48:2-7.

8. Same idea as in 38:1, with the plant metaphor already encountered in 10:16. The passage also recalls Hymns 8:10-12.

9. Compare Isaiah 49:7.

11. Transparent allusion to the persecution of the "righteous" by the "great ones." The righteous are called "children" of God because they represent the true Israel, yet Israel is the son of God (Hosea 9:1), compare Testament of Judah 24:3.

12. The punishment of the damned is the spectacle of the elect, as in 27:3; 48:9. Here we find the vengeful overtones of the War Scrolls (12:10-13; 13:16). The image of the divine sword comes from Ezekiel 21:14-22.

14. Compare Testament of Judah 14: 1 ; Testament of Dan 5: 13 ; Testament of Aser 7: 3.

16. "These garments of yours shall become the garments of life": expression taken from Deuteronomy 8:4; 29:4. The garment as an image of future glory is found in 2 Corinthians 5:3-4.

Chapter 63
5. "Would that someone had given us a chance": the transmission has preserved the Semitic turn of phrase: "Who gave us...?" The palinode of the reprobate is close to that which the Wisdom of Solomon (5:4-13) puts into the mouth of the ungodly seeing the triumph of the righteous.

10. The kings address here the angels of punishment.

Chapter 64
1. The reminder of the punishment of the fallen angels takes place in the same sequence of motives as in chapters 53-54 of the second "Parable": announcement of the punishment of the great ones of this world (53:5, compare 62-63), punishment of the angels (54:1-6, and 64), reminder of the events of the flood (54:7-55:2 and 65-67:3)

Chapter 65
1. This passage (up to 69:25) involving Noah and Enoch is held to be a fragment of a Noahide apocalypse, as are chapters 10-11; 54:7-55:2; 65-68:1 and 106-107.

2. Enoch seems to have retired to paradise where his visionary journey ends according to 32:3.

3. It is now Noah who speaks.

6. "all the powers of those who practice sorcery": the term rendered by "sorcery" is not known elsewhere in Ethiopic, and it is necessary to resort to Syriac to explain it. It should not be forgotten that the Greek Bible was translated into Ethiopic by Syriac-speaking Christians who introduced a number of Syriacisms into classical Ethiopic. Witchcraft and metallurgy are jointly denounced as inventions of fallen angels, as in chapter 8.

8. Galena or lead sulphide, the main source of this metal in antiquity, appears on the surface of the ground. Cassiterite or tin oxide was extracted from alluvial deposits. This is why these two metals are contrasted with silver, which is extracted from underground veins, and are given "sources" as their place of origin. "running angel": lit. "and his angel runs". The author seems to have meant that the angel who resides at the "source" of lead and tin crushes them into particles which come to light either in outcropping deposits or in the alluvium of rivers.

10. The author attributes to the antediluvian sinners what is for him one of the major faults of his adversaries: they made a mistake in the reckoning of the months. One can recognize here an Essene mark. This reference to the months has surprised the interpreters who have substituted "sorceries" assuming an error on a Hebrew original.

11. Those: the corrupting angels of humanity.

12. "kingship": perhaps a reminiscence of Exodus 19:6. The "fountain of the righteous" must be understood as the sect of the elect, of which Noah's descendants, preserved from the flood, are the type (see 10:7).

Chapter 66
2. "that they should not raise the (water) enclosures". Princeton Ethiopic, EMML and Greek text has "not raise one's hand", which seems to mean "to intervene on one's own authority" (compare Genesis 61:44); the angels must "be attentive" to God's command, so as not to release the waters of the flood prematurely.

Chapter 67
1. "Your lot": see note on 37:4. "has come up": Noah's destinies are inscribed in heaven, with God, compare the expression in Jubilees 36:10.

2. According to 89:1, as in Genesis 6:14-21, Noah built his ark himself. The intervention of angels in the construction of the vessel is not found in the Jewish legends concerning the flood.

3. "as well as the seeds". Greek has: "I will disseminate".

4. The fiery valley is the one mentioned in 18:6-9; 21:7-10; on the metallic mountains, see 52:2.

8. The great ones of this world bathe in the hot springs for their health or pleasure (Flavius Josephus, Jewish Antiquities XVII, 6, 5, 171, recalls Herod's visit to the hot waters of Callirhoe, in Transjordan), but they forget that the bubbling of the springs is caused by the subterranean fire in which the fallen angels are supplicated and in which they themselves will be plunged in their turn.

11. Compare John 5: 4.

Chapter 68
1. This verse, interrupting the words of the archangel Michael, seems to be the conclusion, out of place, of the Noahide apocalyptic fragment.

4. Michael did not immediately understand why the punishment of the angels was so severe, and he allowed himself to be pitied. The angels acted like God by procreating, even though they were immortal (see 6:2-3; 15:3-7), or by communicating to humans knowledge that only God could reveal.

5. It is suggested that the torment of angels will be more severe than any other.

Chapter 69
1. The work of the fallen angels survives their condemnation, for they have left men in possession of the evil secrets.

2. One will easily recognize the variants due to the double translation. "Armen" corresponds to "Rame'el", n.3 of the list of 6: 7, according to the Akhmim manuscript, "Tur'el" (n.5) is a doublet of "Tur'el" (n.15), "Neqa'el" comes from "Ziqiel" as a result of a confusion between the Greek letters zeta and nu, "Sipwese'el" is "Sasomaspe'el", "Rum'el" is "Yamayol". The name Azaz'el was borne twice (n.10 and n.21). From n.13, the angels are shifted one rank as a result of the insertion of an angel, Basas'el, whose prototype we do not know.

3. Here begins a second, more detailed but incomplete, line of fallen angels. It indicates the specialty of each of them like the list, also incomplete, given in 8:3. While 69:2 represents the same tradition as 6:7; 69:3 ff. appears independent of it. The division of the angels into "centurions," "fifties," and "tens" is in accordance with that of the Community, according to Community Rule 2: 21-22, and Temple Scroll 57, 4-5; compare Deuteronomy 1: 15.

4. Yeqon: variants "Yequn", "Yâqun". It can be recognized as the third person imperfect or jussive of the Hebrew and Aramaic verb meaning "to stand up". According to its role, Yeqon is an equivalent of Semyaz.

5. The angel's name appears to be formed on the Hebrew root ḥšb, "to conceive a purpose."

6. Comparing the verse to 8:i, Gader'el must be a nickname for Aza'el/Azaz'el. Eve's seducer is elsewhere called Sama'el (targum of pseudo-Jonathan on Genesis 3:6; III Baruch 4:8; 9:7).

8. The name "Pinem'e" (for Pinemu'el?) remains enigmatic. It could be interpreted by the Hebrew penîmî, "that which is within", or by the Greek pneuma, "spirit".

9-10. This is a curious polemic against the profane use of writing, especially for drawing up contracts. The enumeration of the perversions introduced by the angels makes it possible to recognize some aspects of sectarian morality: it condemns weapons and commercial dealings (involving the use of writing). These features are found juxtaposed in Philo's notice on the Essenes (Quod omnis probus liber sit, 78).

12. "Kasadya" might transcribe the Aramaic kasdâ'ê, "the Chaldeans," i.e., the astrologers and magicians. "the son of the serpent, whose name is Taba'ta": the Greek text has rather: "child of the beast called 'male'". It would refer to the Behemoth of 60:8. The desert-dwelling monster would have been held to be the father of the demons, whose favorite habitat is the desert. The "sunstrokes" (Greek: "the blow that strikes at noon") seems to be the famous "noon demon" of Psalms 91:6. It is probable that this list of explained angelic names has been interrupted here. The following verses seem to belong to another, more ambitious speculative tradition.

13. "Kasb'el" still seems to refer to Semyaz (Shemêhaza) who, according to 6:4, took the initiative to make the angels who had followed him take an oath. This name has not been satisfactorily explained, nor has the name "Beqa", which is given for his "figure". But if we transcribe these two names into Hebrew characters, ksb'l and byq', we find that they are an instance of isopsephy: the sum of the numerical values of the letters is in both cases equal to 113.

14. The author imagines that Kasb'el-Semyaz (Shemêhaza) made the angels swear an oath by the unpronounceable name of God, which only Michael knew among the angels. The knowledge of the name implies the knowledge of the supreme mystery of creation, which justifies the digression of verses 16 to 25.

15. "Evil One": Princeton Ethiopic and EMML has: 'Aka'. The meaning of the name 'Aka' has not been elucidated either. It may be a cabalistic transposition of the tetragrammaton, or the result (distorted in translation) of a reading of the tetragrammaton written in Paleo-Hebrew. Instead of this mysterious name, Kebran Gabriel's manuscript n.9, which we are following here, gives 'ekûy, "the Evil One," presumably to provide an understandable term.

16. The verse seems incomplete.

17. Reminiscent of Psalms 24:2 and 104:10.

18. The sand at the bottom of the sea and on the beaches is a barrier that prevents the waters from submerging the land; see Jeremiah 5:22 and Psalms 104:9.

19. Reminiscent of Proverbs 8: 27.

22. The "winds" are the angels who are in charge of the stars and meteors.

25. The "spirits" never interrupt their work; compare what is said of the sun and the moon in 41:7.

26. This hymn, which has no connection with the above, speaks of the joy of the elect at the Judgment. It is apparently related to chapter 41.

27. His glorious throne: see note on 45:3. The sum of the judgment: compare John 5:22. Sinners will be treated like the corrupting angels.

28. Variation: "their assemblies of corruption will be closed".

29. The end of the verse is probably corrupted.

Chapter 70
1. This last episode of the "Parables" section is a further development of the biblical account of the rapture of Enoch (Genesis 5:24). The patriarch is first transported to the northwestern garden (see 23-25) and from there is raised to God, resulting in a new vision of the divine palace similar to that of 14:8-23. In the presence of God, Enoch is greeted by him as an embodiment of the Son of Man, the transcendent Messiah, because he is, it seems, an accomplished righteous person. An unsurpassable sanction is thus given to the teaching of Enoch to which the "righteous" adhere from here on. "And" is an artificial transition. According to the majority of witnesses, this verse should be understood: "his (Enoch's) name was lifted up alive to the Son of Man and the Lord of Spirits" and to see in "Son of Man" the messianic title and not the simple designation of the visionary already encountered in 60:10. But this lesson is hardly reconcilable with verse 71:14, which identifies Enoch and the Son of Man.

2. The allusion to the "wind chariot" underlines the similarity between the assumption of Enoch and that of Elijah described in 2 Kings 2:11.

3. Abrupt change from third to first person as in 65:3. Cardinal points: literally, "winds", see 75:14. The angels carrying the ropes appeared in 61:1-2.

Chapter 71
1. Enoch continues his ascent from the northwestern mountain to heaven, whereas the visions of the "Parables" took place only at "the ultimate ends of the heavens" (39:3).

3. Enoch's guide is not the anonymous angel of the "Parables" (46:2), nor Uriel as in the account of the visionary journey (21:1) or in the treatise on astronomy (72:1), but Michael, the first of the archangels. This is the sign that Enoch will rise higher than ever.

5-6. The description of the heavenly palace is consistent with 14 (verses 9 and 19).

7. On the Ophanim, see 61:10.

10. The description is closer to Daniel 7:9 than is 46:1.

14. As the variant invites, one may wonder if the subject is not Michael rather than God. The first sentence of the statement can be understood as "you are a son of man (a human) born for justice".

15. What is announced (probably by the angel) is the coming of an era of eternal peace (and prosperity) guaranteed by God for Enoch and his people. "From here" seems to refer to the heavenly dwelling place (one might think of a reminiscence of Job 25:2), unless it is an adverb of time, "since then" anticipating "since the creation of the world". The eschatological bliss of the righteous is one of the things decided from all eternity with God.

16. Enoch, recognized as an incarnation of the pre-existing "Son of Man", remains forever in spirit among his people, or they will be reunited with him forever after the judgment.

17. It is not clear whether this brief doxology belongs to the speech addressed to Enoch or whether it is a last word of the author. "lenght of days" probably has an eschatological connotation. It is associated with peace as in Community Rule 4: 7 and War Scrolls 1: 8-9.

Chapter 72
1. The "new creation" is the creation of new heavens and a new earth after the Last Judgment.

2. The "opening of the sun" belong to an ancient Semitic cosmology. To explain the unequal and variable duration of days and nights during the seasons, it is assumed that the sun rises through six different gates or openings, aligned and numbered from south to north, in the east of the world, and goes down through six corresponding gates in the west. The first gate is the most southern; it is by exiting through it that the sun makes its shortest diurnal journey and its longest diurnal journey; the sixth gate is the most northern, and it is by passing through it that the sun makes its longest diurnal journey.

6. The year begins the day after the spring equinox.

12. "Longer": one "part" is one eighteenth of the total duration of day and night. In the second month, day is longer than night by two parts, compared to the equinoctial state which gives nine parts to day and nine to night.

13. "Thirty-one days": the third month of each quarter has thirty-one days; this is the characteristic of the Essene calendar. In our text, the last day of each quarter is marked by a solstice (summer in verse 14, winter in verse 26) or by an equinox (autumn in verse 20, spring in verse 32). This is why the door corresponding to one of these dates bears a "sign".

14. Theoretically, it is at the latitude of 45o that the day is double the night at the summer solstice. Even if the description of the annual movement of the sun is overly systematized, one cannot admit that this system was conceived in Palestine. The author seems to want to adapt, as best he can, an astronomical observation made under more northern skies. The same remark must be made for the winter solstice mentioned in verse 26.

16. "the day decreases exactly by one part": compared to the previous month.

18. "the day decreases by two parts": compared to the solstitial state.

27. "goes through those same cycles of appearances ": after having borrowed the doors of the sixth (summer solstice) to the first (winter solstice), the sun takes now the way of the return, from the first to the sixth door.

28. "one ninth": that is, two eighteenths, or "shares," in relation to the solstitial state (compare verse 18).

32. "Three hundred and sixty-four days": the characteristic number of days of the Essene year was retained in the Ethiopic manuscript transmission.

Chapter 73
4. "and you have the beginning of the month": perhaps the author is addressing opponents of the sect who determine the months according to the appearance of the moon, and not as he claims by the movement of the sun.

5-6. These verses consider the case where the moon takes fourteen days to become full, since on the first day of the lunar month it has one seventh of a quarter of light, or one fourteenth of its total light. On the second day, it has one and a half sevenths of a quarter, which is three fourteenths of its light when it is full.

7-8. Case where the moon takes fifteen days to become full: on the day of the neominy, it is illuminated only for "half a part", that is to say one twenty-eighth; there remains in darkness thirteen fourteenth of the quarter, that is to say twenty-seven twenty-eighths of the whole moon, it is thus practically invisible and appears only the following day.

Chapter 74
3. "the moon waxes in fourteen steps". Greek has: "It is by sevenths that the moon perfects its illumination". By "sevenths" is meant sevenths of a ward as in the previous law.

5-9. This description of the movements of the moon in relation to those of the sun is obscure and probably incomplete. Aramaic fragments for which the Ethiopic does not have a correspondent indicate that a laborious attempt was made to establish a synchronous calendar of the movements of the moon and the sun.

10-16. In this comparison of the solar and lunar calendars, there is a hesitation about the number of days in the lunar year. According to the first paragraph (verses 10-11), the lunar year would be six days shorter than the solar year of three hundred and sixty-four days, that is, three hundred and fifty-eight days, whereas verse 14 counts three hundred and fifty-four days for the lunar year. In one case the synodic revolution of the moon has been taken into account and in the other its sidereal revolution.

15-16. If it is deemed necessary to totalize the days of eight lunar years so laboriously, it is probably because it is thought to refute the Greek system of oktaetēris used before Meton (5th century BC) to make the solar years catch up with the lunar years by adding three months to eight lunar years. All manuscripts show a quasi-dittography in verse 16.

Chapter 75
1. "the reckoning of the year." The passage seems to defend the year of three hundred and sixty-four days against a calendar of twelve months of thirty days (with the intercalation of one month every six years).

4. These gates or openings of the sun are distinct from those enumerated in chapter 72 and recalled later in verse 6. They are gates open in the solar disk, in variable number, which allows to explain the variations of the insolation.

8. The "the stars that do not set revolve" are the circumpolar stars.

9. Probably the Big Dipper.

Chapter 76
2. The "forefront of the sky" is the east, in accordance with the double meaning of the underlying Aramaic term, likewise, the "right" is the south, the "left" the north.

4. "winds of blessing": the beneficial winds come out of the central doors of the four cardinal points. Those that come out of the eight side doors are harmful.

5. This is the east-southeast wind.

6. "directly in the center", i.e. without inclining to the north or south. The description of the east-northeast wind that comes next is mutilated: "Out of the third gate, which is in the direction of the northeast, proceed (both) cold and drought".

9. The locusts are brought by the evil winds, as suggested by Exodus 10:13.

10. This assimilation of the north to the sea, which perhaps betrays an Egyptian influence, is not to be taken as an interpolation, but may also represent an attempt to explain the Greek boreas, "north wind," by the Ethiopic bāhr, "sea." The Ethiopic has a gap, in which the name of the wind was to be found, at the analogy of verses 6 and 8. The same is true of verses 11, 12 and 13. This gap is explained by the fact that the Ethiopic has only one verb for "to go out" (speaking of the wind) and "to come in" (speaking of the meteors).

13. We have the testimony of two Aramaic fragments for 76:13 - 77:4.

14. "four heavenly directions" mean "cardinal points" as in Daniel 7:2. "all their orders, all their evil effects, and all their beneficial effects": Greek has rather: "the complete (list) and explanation". Thus we learn that the treatise on astronomy is taught by Enoch to Methuselah. This third section of Enoch is thus intended for the same audience as the fourth (see 82:1) and the fifth (91:1).

Chapter 77
1. "Orient" and "first" are formed on the same root in Aramaic. Then there is a play on the name of the south, darom, broken down into dâr "to reside" and râm "high." The south: the place where God manifests himself (Deuteronomy 33:2; Judges 5:4; Habakkuk 3:3).

3. "the Occident, its name (means) the diminished, (because) there all the luminaries of the sky wane and descend". The "diminished" may be an attempt to render the Greek husteron, "that which is inferior" or "that which comes last" likely to render a Semitic term antonymous to "first" which denotes the east.

4. Most of the verse has disappeared in Ethiopic translation. In the Greek text, the name of the "north" (ṣpn) is explained by the verb ṣpn, "to hide".

5. The seven mountains are those which Enoch saw on his visionary journey (18:6; 24:2). It is not certain that the Aramaic remnant and the Ethiopic text can be connected as presented here.

6. The "great sea" is the Mediterranean (see Joshua 1: 4).

9. Compare Jubilees 8: 29.

Chapter 78
1. We can recognize in "Oryares" the Hebrew 'or ha-ḥérés, "sunlight" (ḥérés is the name of the sun in Job 9: 7). "Tomâs", with a final s from Greek, is Aramaic ḥwm', "heat", read by mistake twm'.

2. The names of the moon are unintelligible, except for the last one where we recognize a transcription of the Hebrew yârêaḥ, "moon".

6. Two Aramaic fragments contain groups of words that appear to occur in chapter 78 and the beginning of 79.

7. As in 73:5-8, we consider successively the case where the moon takes fourteen days to become full (month of twenty-nine days), and the case where growth takes fifteen days (month of thirty days).

8. This verse adds to the law in chapter 73 a description of the waning of the moon, which always takes fifteen days.

9. Nothing prepares the final allusion to months of twenty-eight days. It probably assumes knowledge of the cycle of Callippos (4th century) who corrected the intercalations of Meton's system by reducing to twenty-eight days the duration of a month every seventy-six years.

15-16. There are three months of twenty-nine days and three months of thirty days per semester. The lunar year is therefore three hundred and fifty-four days, as taught in 74:12-16.

17. The moon spots have often been interpreted as the image of a human face.

Chapter 79
5. From this verse it appears that Uriel gave Enoch a theoretical picture of the celestial movements. The solar year of three hundred and sixty-four days cannot correspond to reality for long anyway. Chapter 80 perhaps suggests that this ideal order has been disturbed by sin, which affects the entire cosmos.

Chapter 80
2-8. This chapter may not describe eschatological wonders, as has been thought, but a disorder characteristic of the present time, which is that of sin. It is marked by climatic irregularities (allusions to drought, verse 2, and famine, verse 5), as well as by astral movements and a succession of seasons that do not conform to the theoretical pattern of the three hundred and sixty-four day calendar.

5. Unclear text. A series of corrections have been proposed that would make the verse read, "At that time the sun will appear in the evening...and will shine more brightly than is regular." But this correction assumes that the chapter is describing the signs of the last times.

7. The present disorder of the heavenly movements prevents sinners, those who have not received the teaching of Enoch, from recognizing the true order that has been disturbed. The Damascus Document (3:13-14) also denounces the misguidance of sinners concerning the calendar. Knowledge of the times is the property of the "righteous," who had to meditate in this spirit Psalms 90:12. The end alludes to astrolatry, often regarded as the essence of idolatry (compare Apocalypse of Abraham 7:4-5).

8. Announcement of the coming Judgment.

Chapter 81
2. The celestial tablets given to Enoch, comparable on this point to Enmeduranki (see note on 12: 4), contain the astronomical and eschatological doctrine which he is charged with revealing. "all the generations of the world": on this meaning of the Ethiopic 'âlam, see note on 48: 6.

4. "against whom no record of oppression has been written": in view of the Judgment, human actions are recorded in a book kept with God (compare Daniel 7:10 and Enoch 89:62-64). The formulation is inspired by Psalms 1:1.

5. The "seven holy ones" are the seven archangels, see note on 20:1. The variant "three" recalls the three guides of Enoch in the "book of dreams" (87:3-4; 90:31). "no one of the flesh can be just": compare Job 9:2. This verse can serve as an introduction to the "Book of the Penances" (91-104).

9. Greek text has: "But the workers of righteousness shall perish from men, and they shall be gathered together (in death) by the work of the wicked"; this is an announcement of a persecution of the righteous. "they shall be": Hebrew idiom, as in Isaiah, 57:1, which this verse demarcates.

Chapter 82
1. "generations of the world": see 81, 2.

2. Reminiscence of Psalms 78:5-6.

4-12. This is the ultimate plea for the three hundred and sixty-four day calendar, which seems to be a crucial element of sectarian doctrine, since it is made the criterion of justice (verses 4-5). Each time is placed under the authority of an angelic "leader": there are four leaders for the four quarters, twelve leaders, called "leaders of the orders" for the twelve months (see verse 11) and "three hundred and sixty captains" each commanding a day of the year.

5-6. The most important thing in the eyes of the author is to recognize the quadripartite division of the year. Here, the four leaders to the seasons appear at the gates of the sky indicated in chapter 72 for the equinoxes and solstices. The gates are listed according to their rank, not according to the succession of seasons.

8. The subject of the sentence is not specified. It is Uriel, for the verse contains an explanation of his name, composed of 'or, "light."

9. "These are the orders of the stars which set in their (respective) places, seasons, festivals, and months": Greek text has at the end: "according to their signs".

11. The title "leaders of orders," given to the leaders of the months, must translate the Greek taxiarchos; taxis could render the Aramaic mašritâ (Hebrew maḥaneh), "camp," which is applied to an angelic company. The hierarchy of angels is military in appearance (see note on 6:8). The four seasonal leaders and the twelve monthly leaders correspond to the four master tribes and the twelve tribes of Israel according to Numbers 2.

13-20. It is very difficult to explain the angelic names indicated in this passage.

14. Very obscure text. The function of the three angels, apparently subordinate to the guides of the seasons and the months, is mysterious. One wonders whether the author did not want to take into account a division of the months of the year into three categories, in accordance with the Essene calendar: those beginning on a Wednesday (first, fourth, seventh and tenth months), those beginning on a Friday (second, fifth, eighth and eleventh months) and those beginning on a Sunday (third, sixth, ninth and twelfth months).

15. Malkiyāl commands the quarter following the spring equinox. Behind the Ethiopic tama'âyni one recognizes a transcription of the Aramaic taymânayyâ, "the southern one".

17. The name of the "leader" commanding the third month of the first quarter is missing. Hēluyāsāf is the "captain of a thousand" or angel of the day, in charge of the summer solstice.

18-20. Hela'emmemēlēk commands the quarter following the summer solstice.

20. 'Asfā'ēl is the angel of the day of the autumnal equinox. The Aramaic fragment from Qumran has allowed us to find part of the description of winter: "(The dew) and the rain come down on the earth, the seed [ ] the grass of the earth and the wood. (The sun) goes out and comes in [ ] it is winter, and all their trees (see their foliage wither, except for) the fourteen trees whose evergreen foliage is not seen (wither)". The details of the fourteen evergreen trees appeared in 3:1.

Chapter 83
1-2. The introduction is common to the two visionary dreams composing this section of the book of Enoch. The dream in chapters 83 and 84 is an announcement of the flood, a model of the catastrophe to come. Chapters 85 to 90 consist of a panorama of holy history, followed by a revelation of future times. Because of the animal symbolism used in this second visionary dream, we will call it the "Apocalypse in the bestiary". These visionary dreams have a different purpose than the "Visionary Journey" and the "Parables" and were located at an earlier stage in Enoch's career, probably by the compiler of the "Enochian" writings. Similarly, in Jubilees 4:17-25, Enoch's visionary dreams are mentioned before his rapture into heaven and elevation to the rank of heavenly priest.

6. Mahalalel's role with Enoch is reminiscent of Enoch's role with Noah in chapter 45. But Mahalalel has no authority to announce to Enoch his salvation. He can only invite him to pray.

10. The final generation: same expression as in 81:2. The prayer is the one we read in chapter 84.

11. Terrified by his dream, Enoch is reassured when he wakes up and sees that the cataclysm has not yet occurred, since the stars have their usual morning position.

Chapter 84
2. "heavens...and the whole earth": reminiscence of Isaiah 46: 1.

3. "not a single thing": reminiscence of Jeremiah 32: 17. The throne of Wisdom is the one she shares with God (compare Wisdom of Solomon 9: 4).

4. The catastrophe foreseen by Enoch is a consequence of the sin of the angels. It is therefore the flood. But the effects of the angels' sin must continue beyond the flood, until the end of time. Thus the flood is only a type of the eschatological catastrophe (see note on 10:17).

5. Enoch first asks that some of his posterity survive the flood.

6. Enoch's second request concerns the perdition of sinners. On the motif of the "plant", see the note on 10:16.

Chapter 85
3. The name of Enoch's wife is given by the book of Jubilees (4: 20) in the form Edni. The white cow is Adam, the female calf Eve, the two calves are Cain and Abel. The author reserves for his heroes, the patriarchs and Israelites, the most noble animal symbols, bovine and ovine. The symbolism of the colors is sometimes superimposed: white is the mark of election, black has the opposite meaning, red is rarely used. If it is assigned here to Abel, it is perhaps to recall his martyrdom, but also to reserve the white for Seth (verse 8). One will notice the absence of any allusion to "original sin".

5. The female calf is a sister of Cain, the one called Awân in Jubilees 4:9.

6. Eve's wailing over her slain son is inspired by a pun on Abel's name explained by the Hebrew 'âbêl, "to lament."

8. The white cow is Seth who passes on the likeness of Adam (Genesis 5:3). On the other children of the first couple, see Jubilees 4:10.

9-10. The white beasts are the antediluvian patriarchs.

Chapter 86
1. Fragments of the Aramaic text for chapters 86, 88 and 89 have been found in Qumran. The tradition about the fall of the angels, represented by stars, differs slightly from that of chapters 6-8. Here it is a question of one angel descending before the others. According to 88:1, which is related to 10:4, this is Azaz'el. This fabrication may have been inspired by the satire of Isaiah 14:12 about the fate of the "bright star".

2. The fallen angel arouses among the sinners, represented by the black cows, a guilty promiscuity.

3. These new stars represent Semyaz and his accomplices (see 6 - 7).

4. The comparison of the limbs to those of horses comes from Ezekiel 23:20. The animals listed here represent the giants born of angels and women. They are divided into three categories as in Jubilees 7:22 (see note on Enoch, 7:2).

5-6. The abuse of the giants is reported in 7:4-5.

Chapter 87
1. The complaint of the earth: compare 7:6 and 9:2-3.

2. These are the seven archangels: three of them are in charge of removing Enoch from the earth, and the other four carry out the missions mentioned in chapter 10.

Chapter 88
1. Raphael (compare 10: 4).

2. Gabriel (compare 10: 9).

3. Michael (compare 10: 12).

Chapter 89
1. The angel in question is Uriel, according to 10:1. The Ethiopic text seems to be more diffuse than the Aramaic original, which must not have pointed out, in particular, the transformation into a man of the cow representing Noah; this addition must mean that this patriarch had access to a superior knowledge, or was the object of a particular election, putting him above humanity. Let us recall that in Genesis 6:9, Noah receives the qualification of "righteous" which brings him closer to Enoch.

2. The ceiling is the sky. The image of the enclosure for the inhabited land is in accordance with animal symbolism.

8. "the ground became visible": in the Aramaic text, this phrase is preceded by "Till the waters disappeared". The appearance of light after the flood is evoked by means of an expression reminiscent of Genesis 1:3, to suggest that the flood was followed by a new creation.

9. The three cows are Shem, Japheth and Ham.

10. These unclean animals represent the nations of the earth that came from the sons of Noah. The author drew on biblical passages such as Ezekiel 39:17 to represent the enemies of Israel with beasts and birds of prey. The white cow, who perpetuates the chosen race, is Abraham, born among the idolaters according to Jewish legend.

11. "begat a wild ass, and a snow-white cow with it": Greek text has: "begat a primrose and a white bull". The primrose is Ishmael, according to Genesis 16:12. The descendants of Ishmael multiply, according to Genesis 21:13.

12. The second white cow is Isaac, the black boar is Esai. The white sheep represents Jacob-Israel. Henceforth the Israelites are represented by sheep, not to suggest a decadence from the cattle mentioned so far, but to apply the biblical images of the "flock" and the "shepherd" of Israel.

13. Recall the story of Joseph: the donkeys are the Midianites and the wolves are the Egyptians (compare Genesis 37:36).

16. Moses takes refuge with the Midianites.

18. The second sheep is Aaron.

19. Increased persecution after Moses' first warning to Pharaoh and new complaints from the Israelites, according to Exodus 5:6-14 and 15-23.

20. Allusion to the plagues of Egypt. The personal pronoun "they", subject of "began to whip", represents Moses and Aaron. A variant gives "He began to whip"; the subject pronoun then represents God.

22. The pillar guiding the Israelites during their exodus is a visible manifestation of God according to Exodus 13:21-22.

23-27. The miracle of the Red Sea.

28. The end of the sheep's blindness reminds us that the miracle of the Red Sea was the first recognized testimony of God's power (Exodus 14:31) and that Israel is now ready to receive the Law. God is then mentioned feeding the Israelites in the desert (Exodus 16).

29. "the summit of that lofty rock": this is Mount Sinai, about which our text has not yet spoken.

32-35. The episode of the golden calf (Exodus 32).

34. The face of Moses is as majestic as that of God, mentioned in verse 30, by application of Exodus 34:30.

35. The "other different sheep" are the Levites who, at Moses' command, slaughter the unfaithful Israelites (Exodus 32:25-29).

36. Reminder of the construction by Moses of the "house", or Tabernacle (Exodus 35 - 40). Like Noah according to verse 1, Moses is transfigured into a man; this is because he too is considered a great initiate.

37. Death of Aaron (Numbers 20:24) and extinction of the exodus generation (Numbers 14:22-23). The "pasture" is Palestine, the "stream of water" is the Jordan.

38. Mention of Moses' death (Deuteronomy 34). It is perhaps by design that the verse does not speak of a burial, to suggest that Moses' death was mysterious.

39. It is after the mourning over Moses that Joshua is invested to succeed him (Deuteronomy 34:8-9). "Those who were leading them" are Joshua and the priest, Aaron's successor, Eleazar, associated with Joshua, according to Joshua 14:1.

40. The "beautiful land" is Palestine; reminiscent of Jeremiah 3:19.

41. The vicissitudes of the time of the Judges are explained by the alternation of blindness and insight, i.e., infidelity and obedience (see Judges 2:11-19).

42-49. The animals are the nations that beset Israel before the beginning of the monarchy. The dogs represent the Philistines (see verse 47). The "ram" is Saul. In the following, the kings are represented by rams. The Greek text of these verses has been preserved in a Greek manuscript in the Vatican. A Qumranian fragment has restored some words of the Aramaic text of verses 43 and 44.

43. "That ram began to fight on all sides those dogs, foxes, and wild boars until he destroyed all of them": Greek text gives: "This ram began to strike with his horns [the dogs] and to pursue them. It also rushed against the foxes, and then against the boars, and killed many boars"

44. The Greek has: "the sheep (pl) whose eyes had been opened", and the Ethiopic: "that sheep (sg)". The singular is preferable, because it is Samuel, censor of Saul. Instead of "had gone astray", the Ethiopic gives: "abandoned his own glory", and at the end of the verse: "without dignity" instead of "bad way".

45-46. Investiture of David by Samuel (1 Samuel 16).

47. Persecution of David by Saul, then death of Saul under the blows of the Philistines. "those dogs toppled that first sheep": Greek reading gives: "the first ram fell before the dogs".

48. Advent of David.

50. The "house" or Tabernacle, mentioned in verse 36. The high tower is the Temple housing the Tabernacle. The "full table" is the altar in the court.

51. The abandonment of the "house" alludes to the schism of the ten tribes that drove Israel from the north of the Temple in Jerusalem. The sheep sent to the flock represent the prophets. The murder of the envoys is a reminiscence of 1 Kings 19:10, a text put in the mouth of Elijah to which our passage alludes. But the theme of the martyrdom of the prophets (see Martyrdom of Isaiah; Matthew 23:31) is perhaps sketched here.

52. Elijah's assumption seems to be intended to save him from persecution, which the Bible does not suggest. "settle down", i.e. "near me"; Elijah joins Enoch in his heavenly retreat.

53. The role of the prophets as accusers is emphasized.

54-58. The decadence of the kingdom of Judah is presented as God's punishment for the people's unfaithfulness (compare The Damascus Document 1:3-4).

56. The lions represent the Babylonians who destroyed the Temple and the kingship of Jerusalem in 587.

59-64. This passage serves as an introduction to the retrospective of national history after 587. God ceases to lead his people directly and leaves it to "shepherds" (compare Zechariah 11:4-6) who are the agents of his wrath. These "shepherds" are angels representing the pagan nations. Their number, seventy, has a double implication. On the one hand, it is the number of the nations of the earth, in accordance with a tradition based on the count of Noah's descendants in Genesis 10; this tradition, widespread in Jewish literature, appears in Jubilees 44:34. On the other hand, the shepherds succeed one another in shepherding God's flock until divine intervention; the time between the end of the Judaean kingdom and the eschatological event is thus divided into seventy periods. Like Daniel 9:24-25, which places seventy "weeks (of years)" between the Babylonian captivity and the miraculous restoration, this apocalyptic speculation is an adaptation of the prophecy of Jeremiah 25:11-12.

60. God maintains control over the history of his people. The angels of the nations to whom God has abandoned Israel remain accountable to him, each for the period in which he is in charge of the flock.

64. Unknowingly, the nations are the instruments of God's wrath. They do not know that they must appear before him to give an account of the fate they have reserved for the flock of God.

66. The leopards could represent the Edomites who took advantage of the last war between Judah and Babylon (see Obadiah; Ezekiel 35). But after 587, all neighboring nations were suspect in the eyes of the prophets. The reminder of the ruin of the Temple and the House is inspired by Psalms 74:7.

71. The daily count of the excesses committed by the shepherds is recorded and kept close to God to be revealed on the day of Judgment (see 90, 17).

72. The "twelve hours" are the first twelve periods of pastoral rule. The three returning sheep are Zerubbabel, the priest Joshua and Nehemiah, whom the author must regard as their contemporary because he too had a rebuilding role. Ezra seems to be excluded. The boars probably represent the pagans who opposed Nehemiah's work, i.e. Sanballatat and Tobias the Ammonite (Nehemiah 3:33-38). If, according to Daniel 9:24-25, a "pastoral period" was estimated at seven years, the author would place the restoration of the Persian era in 503, i.e. after Zerubbabel and Joshua and before Nehemiah.

73. High tower: probably reminiscent of Micah 4:8 where the term "Ophel" would have been understood as "haughty". The defiled offerings evoke the satire of Malachi 1:7, against the clergy of the Persian era.

74. The delivery of the flock by the shepherds to other shepherds evokes the dispersion of the Jews among different nations.

76. The archangel who holds the book intercedes for Israel. He thus has the role held by the "angel of Yahweh" in Zechariah 1:12, and later by Michael.

Chapter 90
1. Thirty-seven shepherds: exegetes have generally corrected this figure to "thirty-five", because if we add thirty-five to twenty-three (the number of pastoral periods indicated in 90:5), we find the fifty-eight pastoral periods spoken of in 90:5. However attractive this correction may be, it is perhaps not necessary. 90:1 signals a turning point in history: it is after these thirty-seven periods that new oppressors, represented by the birds of prey, arrive. It is surely the Greeks. Now the arrival of Alexander the Great in Palestine was in 323, that is, in the thirty-eighth week of years after 587. See the note on 90:5.

2. If the birds of prey include four species, it may be to signify the Greek Empire's claim to universality, given the symbolic value of this number. The birds of prey are listed from the most honorable (the eagle) to the most despicable (the raven), to suggest that this foreign domination has become increasingly unbearable. The birds are said to gouge out the eyes of the sheep to remind us that, in addition to their material ravages, the Greeks exercised a certain "seduction" on the Jews: this may be aimed at the Hellenizing movement which supported the "impious" pontiffs, Jason and Menelaus. "Eating flesh" recalls the invective of Micah 3:2-3 against the "rulers of Jacob" who are oppressors of the poor.

5. Added to the thirty-seven periods of 90:1, these twenty-three periods lead us, it seems, sixty weeks of years after 587, that is, after 167. This is perhaps the limit of the author's lived experience, from which historical retrospection gives way to apocalyptic announcement. The Apocalypse in the Bestiary would thus have been composed during the sixty-first period, the one that opens in 167. Let us recall that 167 is the year in which the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes reaches its peak and the Maccabean revolt breaks out, to which 90:9 makes a clear allusion. Within these sixty periods, or weeks, the author distinguishes an event which would have taken place at the end of fifty-eight periods, that is, after 181.

6. The event of the fifty-ninth period is the appearance of the sect to which the author belongs: it is represented by the white and clairvoyant lambs who call their brothers to conversion. Here we find again the symbolism of color, abandoned since 99:12, when Jacob was mentioned, which could suggest that the group of white lambs considers itself the true Israel. We know from Flavius Josephus (Jewish War, II, 8, 2, 123) that the Essenes made a point of always being dressed in white. This may be the same date that the Damascus Document (1, 5-10) wanted to distinguish by speaking of four hundred and ten years of blindness after the ruin of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, which leads us to 177, again assuming that this milieu had a roughly accurate knowledge of chronology. The appearance of the Master of Righteousness, reported later by the Damascus Document, would be placed an indeterminate amount of time after this date.

7. The appeal of the enlightened ones is not successful and, on the contrary, reinforces the blindness of their compatriots.

8. The kidnapped lamb appears to be Onias III, the last legitimate high priest, deposed by Antiochus Epiphanes in 174 and murdered in 170. Onias III was regarded as a saint (see 2 Maccabees 4:2) and if he is represented by a lamb, it is probably because he is claimed by the sect, perhaps posthumously. As in Daniel 9:26, the disappearance of Onias would thus mark the beginning of the great persecution.

9. The lambs with horns are the members of the sect, identifiable with the Asideans, or pietists, who took up arms to support Judah Maccabees (1 Maccabees 2:42). Judah Maccabees does not belong to the sect, since he is represented not by a lamb, but by a sheep, or by a "male", like the fighting Jews.

10. He cried aloud to the sheep: "he" representing Judah Maccabeus reviews the "clear-sighted", Jews. Greek text has: "He saw them... and called the sheep" (for this meaning of "see", compare 1 Samuel 16:1).

11. The war of liberation is led by a minority. The cries of the sheep remind us of what 1 Maccabees 3:53 says about the assembly at Maspha.

12. The resisters succeed in containing the attack; probable allusion to the victory of Judah over Gorgias at Emmaus (1 Maccabees 4: 1-25).

13. A new and more severe Greek offensive, perhaps that of Lysias in 164 (1 Maccabees 4:26-35). There is no mention of the victory won by Judah Maccabees, which allows him to rededicate the Temple of Jerusalem. Since the rest of the text speaks of a miraculous intervention, one can assume that the author hopes that it alone is capable of triumphing over the new enemy attack, and that he did not know of the real, but limited, victory of Judah Maccabees. This would be a clue to date the Apocalypse to the bestiary.

14-15. The intervention of the angel champion of Israel is not a temporary help (as in 2 Maccabees 8:20 and 10:29); it ensures the triumph of Judah Maccabees.

16. The "the sheep of the field lining up with them" are Israelites considered renegades. This verse, which seems to go backwards, has been regarded as a doublet of verse 13, the "the horn of the ram" appearing to be Judah Maccabees again. However, it is questionable whether the previous development of the narrative has not contaminated a new eschatological episode speaking of the final assault of the nations of the earth on Jerusalem, an assault even more violent than the previous one (compare Ezekiel 38-39) and which will only end with the final judgment. Thus, according to Daniel 11:45 - 12:1, the defeat of Antiochus Epiphanes, predicted but not experienced, will be followed by an even worse time of distress which will itself precede the Judgment.

17. The reign of the last twelve shepherds would represent, in our hypothesis, the time that will elapse between the appearance of the sect (see 90:5) and the completion of the seventy periods, i.e. the Last Judgment and the end of history. After their first defeat, in the sixty-first period, the forces of evil will redouble their violence before their final crushing.

18-19. Eschatological defeat of the nations of the earth.

20-21. The "pleasant land" is Palestine, as in 39:40. The "sealed books" are no longer those in which the massacres of the shepherds were recorded and which have already been opened, according to verse 17, but the inventories of the crimes committed by the cosmic powers and by men (compare 97:6). The seven white men are the archangels of 87:2. The "first star" and those who followed his example had already been imprisoned (88:1 and 3), but this was in anticipation of the Last Judgment (compare 10:4-6).

22. The nations have already been defeated (18-19), but their angelic representatives, the shepherds, must now pass into judgment, just like the angels responsible for the original corruption.

24-25. The place of torment of the angels is the furnace described in 10:6 and 21:7-10.

26. Punishment of the unfaithful Israelites in Gehenna (see 27:2). We are not speaking here of the resurrection of the dead, but of the bodily torment of the ungodly of the last generation.

28. The old Tabernacle is discarded. It is represented as a dismantled building, according to Exodus 26.

29. God's own installation of an Acheiropoietan temple at the end of time is announced in Temple Scroll 29:9-10, and Jubilees 1:17. The people will stand in the new House, as they stood in the Tabernacle made by Moses according to 89:36. The ideal conditions of the past will be found in the ideal future: the people will be in the direct presence of God.

30. The Israelites become the rulers and teachers of the universe. The beasts and birds represent the nations, as usual, now harmless and submissive

31. The three men dressed in white are the archangels who guided Enoch according to 87:3. The "ram" is Elijah, who was brought up with Enoch according to 89:52. The end of the verse seems to indicate that Enoch finds himself among the triumphant sheep without having to go through the Judgment himself.

33. New eschatological stages: resurrection of the dead; gathering of the dispersed Jews; the nations join Israel to take their place in the Abode.

34. The sword is the weapon that was used to defeat the nations in the eschatological war (90: 19); it is now useless.

35. All men adhere to the sect, referred to in 90: 6, as the group of clear-sighted sheep.

37. The white cow is a new Adam (compare 85:3) and represents the prototype of a transfigured humanity. He receives royal honors from the nations. The Messiah of this apocalypse is not a judge, like the one in the "Parables", but a king reigning over the magnified world. Nothing seems to link him to the dynasty of David or to that of the high priests.

38. Transfiguration of humanity into the image of the Messiah. Ethiopic manuscripts propose different readings. One manuscript has eliminated "Word", another gives: "the first became among them the Word". Since the Ethiopic nagar, "word," translates the Greek logos in 1 John 1:1, it is difficult not to see this text as a Christian, specifically Johannine, interpolation. Several corrections have been proposed: either a Hebrew term re'êm, "buffalo," would have been simply transcribed into Greek, and confused with rhêma, "word"; or the original would have been the Hebrew ṭâléh, "lamb," taken for millah, "word"; or 'immar, "lamb," and 'êmèr, "word" would have been confused. These corrections imply a change, hardly explicable, in the animal allegory.

42. The first dream of Enoch is the one related in chapter 83.

Chapter 91
1. "the spirit is poured over me": reminiscent of Isaiah 61:1. This exordium is appropriate for the eschatological revelation that follows, in which Enoch announces that injustice will come to an end. The eschatological discourse underpins the moralizing of this last collection of Enochian writings: if one must guard against injustice, it is because it is doomed to inevitable punishment.

3. Children of righteousness: beyond the immediate descendants of Enoch, this expression applies to all those who adhere to his teaching.

4. "ambivalent attitude": duplicity, compare Psalms 12:3.

6-7. Final salvation must be preceded by an increase in sin.

9. Polemic against idolatry, a biblical commonplace, but relatively rare in the book of Enoch (see 99: 7).

10. According to one of the variants of the Ethiopic text, only the resurrection of the righteous seems to be envisaged here. In the Ethiopic text, the end of chapter 91 is occupied by the conclusion of the "Apocalypse of the Weeks", the picture of the last three weeks that will follow the decisive victory over the forces of evil. According to a fragment from Qumran, the text of 91:11-17 is postponed until after 93:10. Verse 10 of chapter 91, announcing the significant reversal, may have attracted, at some point in the transmission, the end of the "Apocalypse of the Weeks", which recounts the gradual triumph of justice.

11. "and through him the roots of oppression shall be cut off... and commit blasphemy shall perish by the knife", but Aramaic gives: "Through them the foundations of iniquity and the work of falsehood will be removed at the fulfillment (at the Judgment)" The Ethiopic version appears to have been contaminated by verse 12. The Aramaic only announces that the righteous will participate in the eradication of evil in a future that the following verse identifies as the eighth week.

12. "The sword", as in 90:19, but the "Apocalypse of the weeks" is aimed at ungodly people rather than foreign oppressors.

13. "they shall acquire great things": reminiscence of Jeremiah 32: 15, implying that the country will know prosperity and peace. The "house" is the Temple. Unlike 90:28-29, the restoration of the Temple will not take place after the Last Judgment, but after a victory over the godless.

14. "be written off for eternal": Aramaic gives "They will throw (the deeds of the sinners) into the pit". "all people shall direct their sight to the path of uprightness" (compare 90:30).

15. Unlike 92:22, the judgment of the seducing angels is postponed to the very last eschatological stages.

16. The renovation of the universe is expressed by an image taken from Isaiah 30: 26.

17. Eternal reign of righteousness

18. The continuity of 91: 18-19, and 92 is provided by an Aramaic fragment, that of 92: 5, and 1 "Apocalypse of the Weeks" (93: 1-4) by another. The image of the two ways is that of Community Rule 3: 20-21.

Chapter 92
1. Aramaic has: "Letter that Enoch wrote and gave to Methuselah". The "To Methuselah" is attested only in Aramaic. The title and the epistolary style of this verse lead one to believe that the chapter constitutes the beginning of this "letter of Enoch" which contains the essential part of the "pareneses" and which ends after 107:3, according to the Greek papyrus which has preserved a large part of this section.

2. Compare Ecclesiastes 3: 1.

3. Compare 91: 10.

Chapter 93
1. "Enoch happened to be recounting": Aramaic gives: "Professed his poem", same Aramaic expression as in 1:2. The "Apocalypse of the weeks" which begins here embraces the whole history of humanity in ten "weeks" (a division inspired by Daniel 9:24). It is impossible to translate these "weeks" into a constant number of years. Seven "weeks" belong to the past and three to the future. The author must therefore place himself at the end of the seventh week (93:10).

2. Children of righteousness: compare Community Rule 3:20; "plant of truth: see note on 10:16. "verily I, Enoch": a formula presenting the one who utters it as the holder of a superior authority (see Exodus 20:2). Enoch owes his knowledge of the universe and its history not only to his visions and the teaching of angels, but also to the reading of tablets or celestial books. The Babylonian Enmeduranki, who is in some respects a distant model of Enoch (see note on 12:4), also received communication of the secrets of heaven and earth through divine tablets.

3. A papyrus from Antinoe has preserved fragments of a Coptic translation of verses 338. It differs little from the Ethiopic version. Enoch is the seventh of the antediluvian patriarchs (see 60:8 and Jude 14).

4. Instead of the Aramaic "lie", the Ethiopic version has "a great evil". The "first consummation" is the flood, the "saved man" is Noah. The "law" is the Noahide law of Genesis 9, to which Essenism must have attached value (see Jubilees 7: 20).

5. Election of Abraham. The "after him" probably is an echo of the Aramaic "his posterity"; the confusion is explained in Aramaic.

6. Allusion, a little obscure, to the exit from Egypt. The "law" is that of Sinai, the "fence" is the Promised Land.

7. The "house" is the Temple in Jerusalem; "glory" and "kingdom" are attributes of God.

8. Announcement of the decadence of the monarchy (compare 89:54); allusions to the abduction of Elijah and the destruction of the Temple in 587.

9. "its deeds shall be many": the Ethiopic may have meant to render a pejorative Greek term like polypragmōn.

10. An Aramaic fragment provides continuity from 90:10 to 91:11-7. The appearance of the group of seers (compare 90:6) is the first feature of the seventh week. There is no suggestion that they take up arms, which suggests that the "Apocalypse of the Weeks" predates the Maccabean uprising. There is not even a hint of violent persecution. The author seems to be denouncing the blindness and impiety of his countrymen rather than the cruelty of foreign oppression. What distinguishes the group of the elect is knowledge, which is probably the doctrine of Enoch.

11. The questions posed in this paragraph call for a positive and exclusive answer: only Enoch could have known everything that is of the deepest mystery for the common man. The rhetorical questions are reminiscent of those in Job 38-39. The first two questions of this verse were presented in Aramaic in a reverse order.

12. Reminiscence of Proverbs 30:4 and allusion to the assumption of Enoch.

Chapter 94
1. Variation: "the ways of injustice will be lost and lowered".

2. The discernment of good and evil is granted only to a limited number of righteous people whom Enoch, now presented as a moral master, encourages to persevere.

6-9. Sinners are accused of injustice and greed. The author expresses the resentment of a group that feels oppressed by the powerful. It can be assumed that he is aiming at high class Israelites who after 174 formed the party of the Hellenizing high priests, Jason and Menelaus.

7. Reminiscence of Jeremiah 22: 15.

8. Reminiscences of biblical invectives against the danger of riches (see Proverbs 11:28; Psalms 49:7 and 52:7).

9. The Day of Judgment is evoked in terms inspired by Zephaniah 1:14-18.

10. The joy of God, the angels and the righteous at the sight of the ruin of the wicked is a common motif (see 89: 58; 97: 2).

11. The whole passage is addressed alternately to sinners and the righteous, the latter being the spiritual children of Enoch.

Chapter 95
1. The formula is inspired by Jeremiah 8:23. Enoch weeps over sinners, because he sees the misfortunes for which they are responsible (compare 90:41).

5-6. Repetition of several biblical grievances against the ungodly: ingratitude (compare Proverbs 17:13; 20:22; 24:29), false testimony (Proverbs 19:5, 9; 21:28), false weighing (Proverbs 11:1; 20:23).

Chapter 96
2. The first sentence, inspired by Isaiah 40:31, means that the righteous will escape the torments promised to sinners on Judgment Day. The second sentence takes up images from Isaiah 2:19 and 21 to evoke the flight of the righteous into the desert when they want to escape the persecution of sinners. The "sirens": see note on 19:2.

3. The persecution that has just been announced should not discourage the righteous, for it will be followed by salvation, evoked in terms reminiscent of Malachi 3:20.

5. "drink wine in large bowls". The Greek reading says literally: "who drink the strength from the root of the spring". In Greek, this phrase would denounce owners hoarding the waters and would duplicate verse 6. But an original 'âwôn, "ungodliness," could have been confused with 'ayin, "spring." The "plant of ungodliness" would be the vine. Warnings against drunkenness, a favorite sin of kings and great men, are found in Proverbs (23:29-35; 31:4) and in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (Judah 12:3; 14:1; 16:2,4; Issachar 7:3).

6. Water hoarders, comparable to Nabal, who is the biblical model of the wicked rich man (see 1 Samuel 25:11), will endure the hellish drought, because they have preferred earthly springs and the goods they symbolize to the source of life, which is the Law and the fear of God (Proverbs 13:14; 14:27 and Jeremiah 17:13).

Chapter 97
1. The "the day of (the judgment of) oppression" is the day when unrighteousness will be punished.

5. The prayers of the righteous ones will finally reach God (compare 47:1, and Revelation of John 6:10), and not through the intercession of angels as in 99:3.

6. The account of the crimes is recorded in books kept near God (see 90:20).

Chapter 98
2. Censure against luxury in adornment (compare Isaiah 3:18-24). The flowing water is an image of dissolution, like balms, 22: 15.

3. Announcement of the torment of the great ones after the Last Judgment (compare 53: 5; 62 - 63).

4. The Greek papyrus presents a gap at this point. The image of the mountains and hills that cannot change their nature was held to be a polemic against the myth of the fall of the angels considered to be responsible for the origin of evil. In any case, this development fights against a kind of fatalism that makes us believe that a man is condemned to sin in advance. Even if sin was introduced by the fallen angels, individuals can freely decide to follow the right or the wrong path.

6-8. Response to the skepticism of sinners about God's justice, as expressed, for example, in Job 22:12-20.

11. By "devouring blood" the ungodly imitate the sin of the giants (see 7:5). A new gap in the papyrus has removed the Greek text from the end of verse 11 and the beginning of verse 12. The sinners are reproached for not recognizing that God provides all good things, and thus for ignoring that he is providential.

13. Sinners are threatened with a posthumous fate as sad as that of the unburied dead (compare Isaiah 14:19-20).

15. This accusation is repeated in 104:10-12. A distinction seems to be made between those who are not fooled and those who end up believing in their own forgeries.

Chapter 99
3. Angels have the power to intercede, as in 9:3; 15:2.

4. Resurrection of the ungodly for the Last Judgment (compare Daniel 12:2). The Ethiopic speaks here of a judgment of the nations.

5. Brief description of the horrors of the day of judgment; compare 100:1-3 and Matthew 24:19.

6-7. Gap of four lines in the Greek papyrus.

8-9. Ethiopic version is a bit different from Greek's: "They will wander in the stupidity of their hearts. The visions of sleep will lead you astray. You and your works, the lies that you have made and carved in stone, will perish together"

10. "Macarism" interrupting the invectives against sinners and evoking, among others, Psalms 106:3.

11-12. These two verses do not appear in the Greek.

13. Greek text: "Woe to those who build their houses without putting their hands on them. (Woe to you) who make all kinds of buildings of stone and brick. There will be no mercy on you". In rebuking sinners for having beautiful houses built by servile labor, the author recalls the criticism of Jeremiah 22:13-14 against King Joachim.

14. Condemnation of apostasy; compare Jeremiah 35, where Jona-dab, son of Rekab, is given as an example of faithfulness to ancestral traditions.

Chapter 100
1. Gap in the Greek. The internal discord leading to murders is announced by Haggai 2:22; Zechariah 14:13; compare Matthew 10:21.

3. The image is found in John 14:20.

4. Intervention of the angels of punishment; compare 53:3-5; 62:11.

5. The angels guard the spirits of the righteous dead while awaiting the Judgment (compare 22). "As the apple of the eye": reminiscent of Deuteronomy 32:10; Psalms 17:8.

10-13. Not only the angels, but also the stars and the elements witness the crimes of sinners. These witnesses will participate in the punishment, first by depriving the earth of moisture (compare Jeremiah 5:24-25), then by raging with excessive violence.

Chapter 101
1. The Greek reads "humans", the Ethiopic reads "children of heaven", i.e. the righteous, as opposed to the "children of the earth" of 100:6. But the exhortation is addressed to all men, not just the righteous.

4-5. The comparison from maritime life comes out of Psalms 107:23-30. It is found in the Hymns (6:22-24).

6. Reminiscent of Jeremiah 5:22 and Job 38:8-11.

Chapter 102
1-3. The evocation of a maritime catastrophe in the previous chapter leads to that of the final catastrophe.

5. "flesh": see note on Ecclesiasticus 23:17, and the Commentary on Habakkuk 9:2.

6-10. The sinners' reflections on the earthly misfortune of the righteous and the uselessness of their virtue are mainly reminiscent of Wisdom of Solomon 2:1-20. Sinners adhere to a doctrine of immanent retribution.

Chapter 103
1. Gap of three lines in the Greek papyrus.

2. On the "tablets of heaven", see 93: 2.

4. "their humiliation": the sarcasm of sinners, mocking the misfortune of the just.

5. Until verse 8, the counterpart of 102: 6-11: the reflections to which the temporal successes of sinners can give rise are as erroneous as those inspired by the misfortune of the just.

9. After the sinners and the indifferent observers, the righteous themselves are made to speak, tempted to complain about their earthly fate.

13-14. Gap of three lines in the Greek papyrus.

14-15. The persecuted righteous complained to the angels who carry the prayers to God. Their continual misfortune made them believe that the angels did not convey their prayers and that they had sided with their persecutors.

Chapter 104
1. Enoch refutes the error that has just been said about the action of the angels.

2. Reminder of the celestial and astral immortality promised to the righteous after their death (compare 43 and Daniel 12, 3).

4. Phrase absent from the Greek text.

6. Warning to the righteous: their apparent failure must not lead them to apostasy.

7-9. Repetition of motifs already encountered: the account of all sins is kept (98: 6-8), the elements of nature are taken as witnesses (100, 10-11), sinners are forgers (98: 15-16; 99: 2) and idolaters (99, 7-8).

10. Until verse 13, the accusation against the sinners is developed: they falsify the Scriptures. The exact scope of this accusation is not clear: did they falsify the holy books, as the Koran (2:70) accuses the Jews of doing? Did they add false books to the Scriptures? Or did they only give erroneous interpretations? Enoch indicates that these falsifications go against the truth, not only in its letter, but also in its spirit, and he opposes them to his own revelation, which is true, and which the righteous transmit to each other.

Chapter 105
1. This chapter does not appear in the Greek, which seems to confirm the opinion that it is a Christian interpolation. An Aramaic fragment from Qumran seems to indicate that there was no solution of continuity in the original between chapters 104, 105 and 106. It is difficult, however, not to attribute the wording of verse 2 to a Christian writer.

2. If "My Son" refers to the Messiah, this is a representation without parallel in Enoch, and the idea of a union of God and his son with the righteous still living their earthly life seems closer to Matthew 18:20 than to 1 Enoch 62:14, where it is taught that the Messiah will dwell with the righteous after the Last Judgment. The verse must therefore be brought closer to 90:37-38. Another solution would be to see "my son" as a transmission error for "my sons", which would refer to angels.

Chapter 106
1. This chapter, in which Noah is the main character, was probably added to the parentheses because of the reference in verse 13 to Enoch's revelations to his son Methuselah. It expounds a legend about the birth of Noah that was traced to the beginning of The Apocrypha of Genesis. Some fragments from Cave 4 of Qumran seem to indicate that the legend was indeed part of the Aramaic original of Enoch. The first words, "some time after", show that this chapter must be detached from an account of Enoch's life. It is the time before the flood that is designated by "Until that day, justice had diminished" in the Greek reading(compare 93:4), a phrase absent from the Ethiopic version.

2. The radiant appearance, ruddy body and white hair of the newborn reappear in the Iranian legend of Zâl, son of Sâm, told by Ferdowsi in his Book of Kings (Ed. J. Mohl, I, pp. 216ff.).

5-6. Noah's supernatural appearance causes Lamech to suspect that his wife has had dealings with the angels seduced by the humans (6:2). The Genesis Epocrypha (2:1-18) shows Lamech sharing his suspicions with his wife, Bat-Enosh, and instructing Methuselah to question Enoch (2:19-21).

8. At the time of Noah's birth, Enoch is still alive, but his earthly career of three hundred and sixty-five years has ended (Genesis 5:23). He has been mysteriously removed, according to Genesis 5:24, lives at the ends of the earth (compare 65:2), and only his son Methuselah knows where to find him. According to the Apocrypha of Genesis 2:23, Enoch is in the land of Parwaim, the name of a distant and mysterious land.

13. The introduction of sin by the fallen angels is the cause of the flood (see 10:17). A new ordinance: perhaps an allusion to the Noahide covenant of Genesis 9.

17. The first part of verse 17 is out of place in the Ethiopic text. The Greek papyrus has made it possible to restore the exact order.

18. What is said about Noah is reminiscent of Ecclesiasticus 44:17. The verse retained an explanation of Noah's name by the Hebrew verb meaning "to rest". Gap of 4 lines in the Greek papyrus.

Chapter 107
1. Enoch now announces the sins after the flood and the end of the era of unrighteousness. Instead of the "generations of righteousness" of the Aramaic, the Greek and Ethiopic have "a generation of righteousness."

3. The explanation of Noah's name goes back to Genesis 5:29. "Book from Enoch" are the last words of the University of Michigan Greek papyrus. They are absent from the Ethiopic version. They mark the end of a text that probably began in 92:1.

Chapter 108
1. This "book of Enoch", of which we have only the Ethiopic text, is an invitation to the righteous to persevere, reminding them that the ungodly are doomed to eternal punishment. It does little more than repeat various motifs from the book.

3. On the "Book of Life", see 47:3. The "books of the Holy One" appear to be the books in which the saints, i.e. the angels, keep track of human actions (compare 90:20; 97:6). The damned will be punished by fire, like the guilty stars (see 18:12-16; 21:1-6) or the fallen angels (21:7-10). The place of torment is the one described in 21:1 and is described as a "empty place": literally, "invisible" (see note on 60:8).

4. "invisible cloud"; one may have read aoratos for aoristos (see note on 60:8). The mountains set on fire are those of 18:13 and 21:3.

5. The angel is probably Uriel, as in 21:5.

7. According to this verse, the prophetic revelation was transmitted to Enoch by the angels who can freely consult the heavenly scriptures (compare 93:2).

9. Life is compared to a breath in Job 7:7.

10. This passage, up to verse 15, constitutes a kind of divine oracle, summarizing and confirming the assurances given to the righteous by the books of Enoch. It seems to be inspired by the Wisdom of Solomon, 3: 1-10.

11. "Those born in darkness" are the unbelievers who will be converted, the others being doomed to eternal darkness, according to verse 14. Compare 90:37-38.

14-15. The righteous will see the torments of the damned, and the damned will see the bliss of the righteous (compare 27:3; 62:12 and Luke 16:23).